Journal of Healthcare Engineering

Journal of Healthcare Engineering / 2015 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 6 |Article ID 610243 |

Muhammad Farooq, Paula C. Chandler-Laney, Maria Hernandez-Reif, Edward Sazonov, "Monitoring of Infant Feeding Behavior Using a Jaw Motion Sensor", Journal of Healthcare Engineering, vol. 6, Article ID 610243, 18 pages, 2015.

Monitoring of Infant Feeding Behavior Using a Jaw Motion Sensor

Received01 Jan 2014
Accepted01 Nov 2014


Rapid weight gain during infancy increases the risk of obesity. Given that infant feeding may contribute to rapid weight gain, it would be useful to develop objective tools which can monitor infant feeding behavior. This paper presents an objective method for examining infant sucking count during meals. A piezoelectric jaw motion sensor and a video camera were used to monitor jaw motions of 10 infants during a meal. Videotapes and sensor signals were annotated by two independent human raters, counting the number of sucks in each 10 second epoch. Annotated data were used as a gold standard for the development of the computer algorithms. The sensor signal was de-noised and normalized prior to computing the per-epoch sucking counts. A leave-one-out cross-validation scheme resulted in a mean error rate of -9.7% and an average intra-class correlation coefficient value of 0.86 between the human raters and the algorithm.


  1. S. N. Hester, D. S. Hustead, A. D. Mackey, A. Singhal, and B. J. Marriage, “Is the macronutrient intake of formula-fed infants greater than breast-fed infants in early infancy?” Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, Article ID 891201, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  2. S. Mihrshahi, D. Battistutta, A. Magarey, and L. A. Daniels, “Determinants of rapid weight gain during infancy: baseline results from the NOURISH randomised controlled trial,” BMC Pediatrics, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 99, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  3. M. W. Gillman, S. L. Rifas-Shiman, C. A. Camargo Jr. et al., “Risk of overweight among adolescents who were breastfed as infants,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 285, no. 19, pp. 2461–2467, 2001. View at: Google Scholar
  4. P. Wright, J. Fawcett, and R. Crow, “The development of differences in the feeding behaviour of bottle and breast fed human infants from birth to two months,” Behavioural Processes, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–20, 1980. View at: Google Scholar
  5. M. Taki, K. Mizuno, M. Murase, Y. Nishida, K. Itabashi, and Y. Mukai, “Maturational changes in the feeding behaviour of infants - a comparison between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding,” Acta Pædiatrica, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  6. S. Ojha, V. Saroha, M. E. Symonds, and H. Budge, “Excess nutrient supply in early life and its later metabolic consequences,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 817–823, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  7. Z. Yang and S. L. Huffman, “Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries .,” Maternal & Child Nutrition, 9 Suppl, pp. 1105–1119, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  8. L. Dubois and M. Girard, “Early determinants of overweight at 4. 5 years in a population-based longitudinal study,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 610–617, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  9. N. Stettler, B. S. Zemel, S. Kumanyika, and V. A. Stallings, “Infant Weight Gain and Childhood Overweight Status in a Multicenter, Cohort Study,” Pediatrics, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 194–199, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  10. E. M. Taveras, S. L. Rifas-Shiman, B. Sherry et al., “Crossing growth percentiles in infancy and risk of obesity in childhood,” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, vol. 165, no. 11, pp. 993–998, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  11. U. Ekelund, K. Ong, Y. Linné et al., “Upward weight percentile crossing in infancy and early childhood independently predicts fat mass in young adults: the Stockholm Weight Development Study (SWEDES),” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 324–330, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  12. M. Eriksson, P. Tynelius, and F. Rasmussen, “Associations of birthweight and infant growth with body composition at age 15 - the COMPASS study,” Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 379–388, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  13. M. Oyama, T. Saito, and K. Nakamura, “Rapid weight gain in early infancy is associated with adult body fat percentage in young women,” Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 381–385, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  14. F. Weber, M. W. Woolridge, and J. D. Baum, “An ultrasonographic study of the orgenisation of sucking and swallowing in newborn infants,” Pediatric Research, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 806–806, 1984. View at: Google Scholar
  15. A. J. Stunkard, R. I. Berkowitz, V. A. Stallings, and D. A. Schoeller, “Energy intake, not energy output, is a determinant of body size in infants,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 524–530, 1999. View at: Google Scholar
  16. S. P. Da Costa, C. P. van der Schans, S. R. Boelema, E. van der Meij, M. A. Boerman, and A. F. Bos, “Sucking patterns in fullterm infants between birth and 10 weeks of age,” Infant Behavior and Development, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  17. E. Sazonov and J. M. Fontana, “A Sensor System for Automatic Detection of Food Intake Through Non-Invasive Monitoring of Chewing,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1340–1348, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  18. O. Amft, “A wearable earpad sensor for chewing monitoring,” in 2010 IEEE Sensors, pp. 222–227, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  19. J. M. Fontana and E. S. Sazonov, “A robust classification scheme for detection of food intake through non-invasive monitoring of chewing,” in Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, pp. 4891–4894, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  20. J. M. Fontana, M. Farooq, and E. Sazonov, “Automatic Ingestion Monitor: A Novel Wearable Device for Monitoring of Ingestive Behavior,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 1772–1779. View at: Google Scholar
  21. E. Sazonov, S. Schuckers, P. Lopez-Meyer et al., “Non-invasive monitoring of chewing and swallowing for objective quantification of ingestive behavior,” Physiological Measurement, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 525–541, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  22. Use of World Health Organization and CDC Growth Charts for Children Aged 0-59 Months in the United States, Accessed Dec 19, 2013
  23. S. J. Fomon, F. Haschke, E. E. Ziegler, and S. E. Nelson, “Body composition of reference children from birth to age 10 years,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1169–1175, 1982. View at: Google Scholar
  24. M. Hernandez-Reif, T. Field, and M. Diego, “Differential sucking by neonates of depressed versus non-depressed mothers,” Infant Behavior and Development, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 465–476, 2004. View at: Google Scholar
  25. M. Hernandez-Reif, T. Field, N. Del Pino, and M. Diego, “Less exploring by mouth occurs in newborns of depressed mothers,” Infant Mental Health Journal, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 204–210, 2000. View at: Google Scholar
  26. W. Sweldens, “The Lifting Scheme: A Custom-Design Construction of Biorthogonal Wavelets,” Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 186–200, 1996. View at: Google Scholar
  27. WHO, “The WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS): Rationale, planning, and implementation,” Accessed Dec 8, 2013 View at: Google Scholar
  28. H. Passing and Bablok, “A new biometrical procedure for testing the equality of measurements from two different analytical methods. Application of linear regression procedures for method comparison studies in clinical chemistry, Part I,” Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 709–720, 1983. View at: Google Scholar
  29. W. Chen, S. Bambang Oetomo, L. Feijs, S. Bouwstra, I. Ayoola, and S. Dols, “Design of an Integrated Sensor Platform for Vital Sign Monitoring of Newborn Infants at Neonatal Intensive Care Units,” Journal of Healthcare Engineering, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 535–553, 2010. View at: Google Scholar

Copyright © 2015 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

More related articles

 PDF Download Citation Citation
 Order printed copiesOrder

Related articles