Table 1: Three common safety hazard scenarios, with corresponding examples from real incidents reported to the FDA MAUDE database.

Safety hazard scenario (outcome)Unsafe control action examplePossible causal factors (accidental failures)Raven-II simulationImpact (clinical scenarios for safety training) [example]
Target software moduleTarget variables

System temporarily unavailable (recoverable system error)A user command is provided but not followed by the robot.Improper operator actions or console control malfunctionsNetwork-layer thread (network_layer)User-desiredRestart the system [MAUDE 3293519]
Troubleshoot error
contact manufacturer
(i) Position
(ii) Orientation
(iii) Grasper angle
(iv) Foot pedal

System permanently unavailable (nonrecoverable system error)A motor command is provided by the robot control, but it is not followed by the motors.Sensor (encoder) failureControl thread (get_USB_packet)USB boardConvert the procedure [MAUDE 2663924] Reschedule [MAUDE 3275500]
(i) Address
(ii) Returned status
USB boardReport to manufacturer
(i) Address
(ii) Returned status

Unintended movement of robotic arms (sudden jump)A command is provided by the robot control to motors while the calculated next position is at large distance (big jump) from current position.Actuator failuresControl thread (put_USB_packet)Commands to robot jointsPuncture of artery [MAUDE 1590517] Bleeding of uterine tube [MAUDE 2120175]