Table 1: Effects of dropping height on the forces of the ankle, knee, and hip joints (unit: body weight, BW).

JointDirectionLow (32 cm)Medium (52 cm)High (72 cm)F

AnkleVertical16.95 ± 2.5918.88 ± 3.4623.98 ± 4.218.815<0.001
A-P4.87 ± 0.965.19 ± 1.045.18 ± 1.111.5620.252
M-L4.17 ± 0.884.23 ± 1.065.83 ± 0.962.2040.147

KneeVertical9.09 ± 2.0911.5 ± 2.2614.58 ± 2.176.8950.004
A-P2.86 ± 0.745.23 ± 1.094.98 ± 1.321.7850.204
M-L0.72 ± 0.310.75 ± 0.240.88 ± 0.327.3070.007

HipVertical8.50 ± 2.539.49 ± 2.6822.81 ± 4.6910.208<0.001
A-P3.49 ± 1.154.08 ± 1.6811.9 ± 2.968.0240.003
M-L3.74 ± 0.694.76 ± 1.1212.56 ± 3.368.7490.004

A-P: anterior-posterior; M-L: medial-lateral.