Table 2: Maximum displacement and loads delivered to the tooth by the different aligners.

Standard alignerRectangular palatal attachmentRectangular buccal attachmentEllipsoid buccal attachment

Maximum tooth displacement (mm)0.0790.0880.0860.092
Fx (N)0.00.40.70.8
Fy (N)0.0−0.20.40.3
Fz (N)0.42.01.31.3
Mx (N mm)1.5−1.72.82.9
My (N mm)1.80.6−1.7−1.9
Mz (N mm)−2.8−1.91.00.7

F” represents the force in each direction, and “M” denotes the moment along each direction.