Journal of Healthcare Engineering / 2020 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Application of Simulation Methods in Cervical Spine Dynamics

Table 1

Overview of head-neck MB models.

YearAuthorTypeSegmentIVD detailsLigament detailsMuscle detailsSimulated impact cases

1983Williams and Belytschko [15]MBC1-T16 DOF springNonlinear springs22 pairs, active (stretch-reflex)Frontal-lateral
1984Merrill et al. [16]MBC0-T16 DOF spring/damper7 pairs, passiveLateral-rear
1987Deng and Goldsmith et al. [17]MBC1–C76 DOF spring/damper13 pairs (3 Pt), passiveLateral-rear
1994Jakobsson et al. [18]MBHuman bodyPassiveRear-end
1996De Jager et al. [19]MBC0-T16 DOF spring/damperNonlinear viscoelastic15 pairs, passiveFrontal-lateral
1997Camacho et al. [20]MBC0-T13 DOF spring/damperAxial
1998Van den Kroonenberg et al. [21]MBHuman bodyPassiveRear
2000Yamazaki et al. [22]MBC0-T16 DOF spring/damperSpring element15 pairs, active (Hill)Frontal-lateral
2000Linder et al. [23]MBC0-T1Muscle substitutesRear
2002Van Der Horst et al. [24]MBC0-T16 DOF spring/damperNonlinear cables68 pairs (multi Pt), active (Hill)Frontal-rear
2004Lee et al. [25]MBC0-T16 DOF springNonlinear Cables22 pairs (multi Pt), active (Hill)Frontal
2004Stemper et al. [26]MBC0-T1Nonlinear CablesPassiveLateral-rear
2004van Lopik et al. [27]MBC0-T1Nonlinear viscoelasticPassive, active (Hill)Frontal-rear
2009Himmetoglu et al. [28]MBHuman bodyMassless spring/damperMassless spring-damperMassless spring-damperRear
2016Bruijn et al. [93]MBC0-T1Spring/damperNonlinear CablesPassive
2017Cazzola et al. [94]MBHuman bodyMASIFront
2018Mortensen et al. [95]MBC0-T1MASILateral

DOF = degrees of freedom; Hill = Hill muscle model; Pt = points; IVD = intervertebral disk; MASI = Musculoskeletal model for the Analysis of Spinal Injuries.

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