Journal of Healthcare Engineering / 2020 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

Application of Simulation Methods in Cervical Spine Dynamics

Table 3

Overview of numerical models to predict whiplash injury.

Model nameTypeDescriptionValidated forInjuries studiedReferences

TNO neckMBSkull to T1Quasistatic facet responseALL strain effect of posture of CL strain[26, 85, 86]
Vertebrae: rigid, scanned from cadaverAll response
Ligaments: piecewise linear springsRear impact
Discs: 3D point restraint
Facets: 1D point restraint
Muscle: 68 passive pairs

HUMOSFEFull body 50th percentile male in the seated positionQuasistatic segment responseVertebral stresses[87]
Approx. 50,000 elementsFrontal, oblique, and lateral impactLigament strain
Vertebrae: solid elastoplastic
Ligaments: 1D nonlinear springs
Discs: solid elements, incompressible fluid for nucleus, linear elastic for annulus
Facets: two layers of solid elements with springs for CL
Muscles: passive, nonlinear springs for elastic properties

THUMSFEFull body 50th percentile male in the seated positionQuasistatic facet responseCL strains and NIC influence of active head restraints[58]
Approx. 80,000 elementsRear impact
Vertebrae: linear elastic solids
Ligaments: piecewise linear discrete
Facets: no cartilage, shell elements for CL
Discs: solid linear elastic
Muscles: passive, 1D discrete

ETH neckFESkull to T1Rear impactDynamic pressure spikes put the DRG at risk[88]
Vertebrae: rigid
Ligaments, facets, and discs modeled
Muscles: 1D discrete, active Hill type

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