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Developmental Immunology
Volume 6, Issue 1-2, Pages 25-39

In-Vitro Differentiation of Mature Dendritic Cells From Human Blood Monocytes

1Department of Immunology, Georg-August University, Göttingen D-37075, Germany
2lnstitute for Anatomy, Georg-August University, Göttingen D-37075, Germany
3Division of Clinical Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University Clinics, Hufelandstrasse 55, Essen D-45122, Germany

Received 15 August 1996; Accepted 14 April 1997

Copyright © 1998 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Representing the most potent antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DC) can now be generated from human blood monocytes. We recently presented a novel protocol employing GM-CSF, IL-4, and IFN-γ to differentiate monocyte-derived DC in vitro. Here, such cells are characterized in detail. Cells in culture exhibited both dendritic and veiled morphologies, the former being adherent and the latter suspended. Phenotypically, they were CD1a-/dim, CD11a+, CD11b++, CD11c+, CD14dim/-, CD16a-/dim, CD18+, CD32dim/-, CD33+, CD40+, CD45R0+, CD50+, CD54+, CD64-/dim, CD68+, CD71+, CD80dim, CD86+/++, MHC class I++/+++ HLA-DR++/+++ HLA-DP+, and HLA-DQ+. The DC stimulated a strong allogeneic T-cell response, and further evidence for their autologous antigen-specific stimulation is discussed. Although resembling a mature CD 11c+CD45R0+ blood DC subset identified earlier, their differentiation in the presence of the Thl and Th2 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4 indicates that these DC may conform to mature mucosal DC.