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Developmental Immunology
Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 147-158

Development of lntraepithelial Cells in the Porcine Small Intestine

1Center for Research and Advanced Studies (CINVESTAV-IPN), Dept. Experimental Pathology, Av. IPN 2508, Mexico 07360, D.F., Mexico
2Electronic Microscopy Unit, Av. IPN 2508, Mexico 07360, D.F., Mexico
3Dept. Genetics and Molecular Biology, Av. IPN 2508, Mexico 07360, D.F., Mexico
4Dept of Biochemistry., Av. IPN 2508, Mexico 07360, D.F., Mexico
5Laboratory of Human Immunology, FES-Cuautitlán-UNAM, México, Mexico
6Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Clinical Veterinary Sciences, University of Bristol, UK

Copyright © 2001 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The number, phenotype, localisation and development of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) from duodenum (Du) and ileum (Il) were studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and light and electron microscopy in unweaned (0–7 weeks old) and six months-old pigs. Developmental changes at birth showed that 38% of the total lymphocytes in the villi were IEL, mainly of the CD2+CD4-CD8- double negative (DN) phenotype. That proportion rose to over 50% at week 5 after birth, resembling adult proportion, although still with fewer cells than in adult pigs. CD4+ cells appeared relatively early in life although they were confined to the lamina propria (LP) and CD8+ cells were found only in low numbers. In the villi of adult animals, almost half of the total number of lymphocytes were IEL (49% Du, 52% Il). Over half of these IEL (52% Du, 53% Il) showed the CD2+CD4-CD8+ phenotype and were localized at the epithelium's basement membrane. Numerous (43% Du, 42% Il) DN IEL were found grouped at the enterocyte nucleus level and relatively few (5% in Du and Il) granular IEL were found apically in the epithelium. These proportions were homogeneously maintained along the villi's tip, middle and bottom, suggesting that the IEL may have their origin in the LP. Therefore, the IEL compartment in the porcine intestine develops slowly with age and is actually composed by a heterogeneous population of cells (null, DN and CD8+). These results may explain the increased susceptibility of young animals to disease during the lactation period and should be taken into account when functional studies are carried out with IEL. The quantitative results of this paper established a model for studies on the effect of age, diet, normal flora, infection and oral immunization on the IEL of the gut.