Journal of Immunology Research

Journal of Immunology Research / 2004 / Article

Open Access

Volume 11 |Article ID 348269 |

Jonathan D. Powell, Sada Boodoo, Maureen R. Horton, "Identification of the Molecular Mechanism by which TLR Ligation and IFN-γ Synergize to Induce Mig", Journal of Immunology Research, vol. 11, Article ID 348269, 8 pages, 2004.

Identification of the Molecular Mechanism by which TLR Ligation and IFN-γ Synergize to Induce Mig


Monokine Induced by Interferon- (MIG), a CXC chemokine, is a potent inducer of T-cell chemotaxis and activation and has been implicated in the host response to viral infections and tumor immunity as well as in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and transplant rejection. Although it is known that the Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR-4) ligand LPS synergizes with IFN-γ to induce MIG expression in macrophages, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the synergy have yet to be elucidated. We determined that the marked synergy between LPS and IFN-γ on MIG mRNA expression in mouse macrophages is a result of LPS-induced NF-κB and IFN-γ-induced STAT. The synergy was not dependent on new protein synthesis, was independent of TNF-α, and occurred at the level of gene transcription. We identified 2 NF-κB sites located at -154 and -129 of the MIG promoter proximal to the -responsive element that mediated this effect. Finally, we demonstrated that other TLR ligands (zymosan, double stranded RNA and CpG) synergized with IFN-γ to induce MIG in an NF-κB dependent fashion. These data emphasize the ability of bacterial and viral products to activate/modify immune responses and promote adaptive T cell immunity through the NF-κB pathway.

Copyright © 2004 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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