Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2008, Article ID 590941, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2008/590941
Research Article

Lack of Disease Specificity Limits the Usefulness of In Vitro Costimulation in HIV- and HCV-Infected Patients

1Institut für Anatomie I, Medizinische Fakultät der Universität zu Köln, Joseph-Stelzmann-Str. 9, 50931 Köln, Germany
2Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Wolstein Building, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA

Received 2 April 2008; Accepted 23 June 2008

Academic Editor: Mario Clerici

Copyright © 2008 Stefanie Kuerten et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Kuerten, T. M. Nowacki, T. O. Kleen, R. J. Asaad, P. V. Lehmann, and M. Tary-Lehmann, “Dissociated production of perforin, granzyme B, and IFN-γ by HIV-specific CD8+ cells in HIV infection,” AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 62–71, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. T. M. Nowacki, S. Kuerten, W. Zhang et al., “Granzyme B production distinguishes recently activated CD8+ memory cells from resting memory cells,” Cellular Immunology, vol. 247, no. 1, pp. 36–48, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. N. Alatrakchi, V. Di Martino, V. Thibault et al., “Decreased frequencies of virus-specific T helper type 1 cells during interferon alpha plus ribavirin treatment in HIV-hepatitis C virus co-infection,” AIDS, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 121–123, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. D. D. Anthony, N. L. Yonkers, A. B. Post et al., “Selective impairments in dendritic cell-associated function distinguish hepatitis C virus and HIV infection,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 172, no. 8, pp. 4907–4916, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  5. N. H. Gruener, F. Lechner, M.-C. Jung et al., “Sustained dysfunction of antiviral CD8+ T lymphocytes after infection with hepatitis C virus,” Journal of Virology, vol. 75, no. 12, pp. 5550–5558, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. A. Y. Kim, G. M. Lauer, K. Ouchi et al., “The magnitude and breadth of hepatitis C virus-specific CD8+ T cells depend on absolute CD4+ T-cell count in individuals coinfected with HIV-1,” Blood, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 1170–1178, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. G. M. Lauer, T. N. Nguyen, C. L. Day et al., “Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-hepatitis C virus coinfection: intraindividual comparison of cellular immune responses against two persistent viruses,” Journal of Virology, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 2817–2826, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. H. Valdez, D. Anthony, F. Farukhi et al., “Immune responses to hepatitis C and non-hepatitis C antigens in hepatitis C virus infected and HIV-1 coinfected patients,” AIDS, vol. 14, no. 15, pp. 2239–2246, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. H. Valdez, N. L. Carlson, A. B. Post et al., “HIV long-term non-progressors maintain brisk CD8 T cell responses to other viral antigens,” AIDS, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1113–1118, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. H. Wedemeyer, X.-S. He, M. Nascimbeni et al., “Impaired effector function of hepatitis C virus-specific CD8+ T cells in chronic hepatitis C virus infection,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 169, no. 6, pp. 3447–3458, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  11. N. L. Yonkers, B. Rodriguez, A. B. Post et al., “HIV coinfection impairs CD28-mediated costimulation of hepatitis C virus-specific CD8 cells,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 194, no. 3, pp. 391–400, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. W. Jennes, L. Kestens, D. F. Nixon, and B. L. Shacklett, “Enhanced ELISPOT detection of antigen-specific T cell responses from cryopreserved specimens with addition of both IL-7 and IL-15—the Amplispot assay,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 270, no. 1, pp. 99–108, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. P. A. Ott, B. R. Berner, B. A. Herzog et al., “CD28 costimulation enhances the sensitivity of the ELISPOT assay for detection of antigen-specific memory effector CD4 and CD8 cell populations in human diseases,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 285, no. 2, pp. 223–235, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. S. A. Calarota, M. Otero, K. Hermanstayne et al., “Use of interleukin 15 to enhance interferon-? production by antigen-specific stimulated lymphocytes from rhesus macaques,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 279, no. 1-2, pp. 55–67, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. S. K. Subudhi, M.-L. Alegre, and Y.-X. Fu, “The balance of immune responses: costimulation verse coinhibition,” Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 193–202, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. K.-M. Chang, N. H. Gruener, S. Southwood et al., “Identification of HLA-A3 and -B7-restricted CTL response to hepatitis C virus in patients with acute and chronic hepatitis C,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 162, no. 2, pp. 1156–1164, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  17. M. J. Koziel, “The role of immune responses in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus infection,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 4, supplement 2, pp. 31–41, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. P. Scognamiglio, D. Accapezzato, M. A. Casciaro et al., “Presence of effector CD8+ T cells in hepatitis C virus-exposed healthy seronegative donors,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 162, no. 11, pp. 6681–6689, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  19. D. K. H. Wong, D. D. Dudley, N. H. Afdhal et al., “Liver-derived CTL in hepatitis C virus infection: breadth and specificity of responses in a cohort of persons with chronic infection,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 160, no. 3, pp. 1479–1488, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  20. N. J. Borthwick, M. Bofill, W. M. Gombert et al., “Lymphocyte activation in HIV-1 infection. II. Functional defects of CD28- T cells,” AIDS, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 431–441, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. L. A. Trimble, P. Shankar, M. Patterson, J. P. Daily, and J. Lieberman, “Human immunodeficiency virus-specific circulating CD8 T lymphocytes have down-modulated CD3ζ and CD28, key signaling molecules for T-cell activation,” Journal of Virology, vol. 74, no. 16, pp. 7320–7330, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. J. Gamberg, I. Pardoe, M. I. Bowmer, C. Howley, and M. Grant, “Lack of CD28 expression on HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes is associated with disease progression,” Immunology & Cell Biology, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 38–46, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. R. Kämmerer, A. Iten, P. C. Frei, and P. Bürgisser, “Expansion of T cells negative for CD28 expression in HIV infection. Relation to activation markers and cell adhesion molecules, and correlation with prognostic markers,” Medical Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 185, no. 1, pp. 19–25, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. S. R. Ostrowski, J. Gerstoft, B. K. Pedersen, and H. Ullum, “A low level of CD4+CD28+ T cells is an independent predictor of high mortality in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 187, no. 11, pp. 1726–1734, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. S. S. Vollers and L. J. Stern, “Class II major histocompatibility complex tetramer staining: progress, problems, and prospects,” Immunology, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 305–313, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. E. Assarsson, J. Sidney, C. Oseroff et al., “A quantitative analysis of the variables affecting the repertoire of T cell specificities recognized after vaccinia virus infection,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 178, no. 12, pp. 7890–7901, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  27. A. Y. Karulin, M. D. Hesse, M. Tary-Lehmann, and P. V. Lehmann, “Single-cytokine-producing CD4 memory cells predominate in type 1 and type 2 immunity,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 164, no. 4, pp. 1862–1872, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  28. M. T. Rock, S. M. Yoder, P. F. Wright, T. R. Talbot, K. M. Edwards, and J. E. Crowe Jr., “Differential regulation of granzyme and perforin in effector and memory T cells following smallpox immunization,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 174, no. 6, pp. 3757–3764, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  29. I. S. Grewal and R. A. Flavell, “The role of CD40 ligand in costimulation and T-cell activation,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 153, pp. 85–106, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  30. B. M. Carreno and M. Collins, “The B7 family of ligands and its receptors: new pathways for costimulation and inhibition of immune responses,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 20, pp. 29–53, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. R. M. Roberts, L. Liu, Q. Guo, D. Leaman, and J. Bixby, “The evolution of the type I interferons,” Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 805–816, 1998. View at Google Scholar