Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2009, Article ID 537929, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/537929
Research Article

Different Activity of the Biological Axis VEGF-Flt-1 (fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 1) and CXC Chemokines between Pulmonary Sarcoidosis and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Bronchoalveolar Lavage Study

1Department of Thoracic Medicine, University Hospital, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, 71110 Crete, Greece
2Laboratory of Virology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
3Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Immunology and Allergy, University Hospital, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece

Received 15 July 2009; Revised 27 September 2009; Accepted 7 December 2009

Academic Editor: C. Pauza

Copyright © 2009 Katerina M. Antoniou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Turner-Warwick, “Precapillary systemic-pulmonary anastomoses,” Thorax, vol. 18, pp. 225–237, 1963. View at Google Scholar
  2. R. M. Strieter, M. D. Burdick, B. N. Gomperts et al., “CXC chemokines in angiogenesis,” Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 593–609, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  3. R. M. Strieter, J. A. Belperio, and M. P. Keane, “CXC chemokines in angiogenesis related to pulmonary fibrosis,” Chest, vol. 122, no. 6, supplement, pp. 298S–301S, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  4. G. W. Hunninghake, U. Costabel, M. Ando et al., “ATS/ERS/WASOG statement on sarcoidosis. American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society/World Association of Sarcoidosis and Granulomatous Disorders,” Sarcoidosis Vasculitis and Diffuse Lung Disease, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 149–173, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Agostini, A. Meneghin, and G. Semenzato, “T-lymphocytes and cytokines in sarcoidosis,” Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 435–440, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  6. M. Petrek, V. Kolek, J. Szotkowská, and R. M. du Bois, “CC and C chemokine expression in pulmonary sarcoidosis,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1206–1212, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. U. Costabel, S. Ohshimo, and J. Guzman, “Diagnosis of sarcoidosis,” Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 455–461, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  8. R. Bonecchi, G. Bianchi, P. P. Bordignon et al., “Differential expression of chemokine receptors and chemotactic responsiveness of type 1 T helper cells (Th1s) and Th2s,” The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 187, no. 1, pp. 129–134, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  9. A. Capelli, A. Di Stefano, M. Lusuardi, I. Gnemmi, and C. F. Donner, “Increased macrophage inflammatory protein-1α and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients affected by different stages of pulmonary sarcoidosis,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 165, no. 2, pp. 236–241, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Katchar, A. Eklund, and J. Grunewald, “Expression of Th1 markers by lung accumulated T cells in pulmonary sarcoidosis,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 254, no. 6, pp. 564–571, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  11. Y. Nishioka, K. Manabe, J. Kishi et al., “CXCL9 and 11 in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis: a role of alveolar macrophages,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 149, no. 2, pp. 317–326, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. K. M. Antoniou, A. Tzouvelekis, M. G. Alexandrakis et al., “Different angiogenic activity in pulmonary sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis,” Chest, vol. 130, no. 4, pp. 982–988, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. K. M. Antoniou, N. Tzanakis, E. G. Tzortzaki et al., “Different angiogenic CXC chemokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after interferon γ-1b therapy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients,” Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 840–844, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. N. F. Voelkel, R. W. Vandivier, and R. M. Tuder, “Vascular endothelial growth factor in the lung,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 290, pp. L209–L221, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  15. B. Millauer, S. Wizigmann-Voos, H. Schnürch et al., “High affinity VEGF binding and developmental expression suggest Flk-1 as a major regulator of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis,” Cell, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 835–846, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. “American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society international multidisciplinary consensus classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 165, no. 2, pp. 277–304, 2002.
  17. P. H. Quanjer, G. J. Tammeling, J. E. Cotes et al., “Lung volumes and forced ventilatory flows. Report Working Party Standardization of Lung Function Tests, European Community for Steel and Coal. Official Statement of the European Respiratory Society,” The European Respiratory Journal. Supplement, vol. 16, pp. 5–40, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Report of the European Society of Pneumonology Task Group, “Technical recommendations and guidelines for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL),” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 2, pp. 561–585, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  19. N. Soulitzis, I. Karyotis, D. Delakas, and D. A. Spandidos, “Expression analysis of peptide growth factors VEGF, FGF2, TGFB1, EGF and IGF1 in prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 305–314, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. Koh, S. Tasaka, N. Hasegawa et al., “Vascular endothelial growth factor in epithelial lining fluid of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome,” Respirology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 281–284, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. J. Muller-Quernheim, “Sarcoidosis: immunopathogenetic concepts and their clinical application,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 716–738, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. Agostini, M. Cassatella, R. Zambello et al., “Involvement of the IP-10 chemokine in sarcoid granulomatous reactions,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 161, no. 11, pp. 6413–6420, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. I. Tsiligianni, K. M. Antoniou, D. Kyriakou et al., “Th1/Th2 cytokine pattern in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and induced sputum in pulmonary sarcoidosis,” BMC Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 5, article 8, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. K. M. Antoniou, A. Tzouvelekis, M. G. Alexandrakis et al., “Upregulation of Th1 cytokine profile (IL-12, IL-18) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis,” Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 400–405, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. K. M. Antoniou, I. Tsiligianni, N. Tzanakis et al., “Perforin down-regulation and adhesion molecules activation in pulmonary sarcoidosis: an induced sputum and BAL study,” Chest, vol. 129, no. 6, pp. 1592–1598, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. D. Miotto, P. Christodoulopoulos, R. Olivenstein et al., “Expression of IFN-γ-inducible protein; monocyte chemotactic proteins 1, 3, and 4; and eotaxin in TH1- and TH2-mediated lung diseases,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 107, no. 4, pp. 664–670, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. S. Katoh, K. Fukushima, N. Matsumoto et al., “Accumulation of CXCR3-expressing eosinophils and increased concentration of its ligands (IP10 and Mig) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia,” International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 229–235, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. A. Busuttil, S. S. Weigt, M. P. Keane et al., “CXCR3 ligands are augmented during the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 676–686, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. M. Sekiya, A. Ohwada, K. Miura, S. Takahashi, and Y. Fukuchi, “Serum vascular endothelial growth factor as a possible prognostic indicator in sarcoidosis,” Lung, vol. 181, no. 5, pp. 259–265, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Koyama, E. Sato, M. Haniuda, H. Numanami, S. Nagai, and T. Izumi, “Decreased level of vascular endothelial growth factor in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of normal smokers and patients with pulmonary fibrosis,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 166, no. 3, pp. 382–385, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Sugiyama, H. Mukae, H. Ishii et al., “Elevated levels of interferon γ-inducible protein-10 and epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide-78 in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis,” Respirology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 708–714, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  32. E. A. Renzoni, D. A. Walsh, M. Salmon et al., “Interstitial vascularity in fibrosing alveolitis,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 167, no. 3, pp. 438–443, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. M. P. Keane, “Angiogenesis and pulmonary fibrosis: feast or famine?” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 170, pp. 207–209, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  34. E. A. Renzoni, “Neovascularization in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: too much or too little?” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 169, pp. 1179–1180, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  35. M. Ebina, M. Shimizukawa, N. Shibata et al., “Heterogeneous increase in CD34-positive alveolar capillaries in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 169, no. 11, pp. 1203–1208, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus