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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 327417, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/327417
Review Article

A Controversial Role for IL-12 in Immune Response and Bone Resorption at Apical Periodontal Sites

1Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
2Laboratory of Immunopharmacology, Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
3Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
4Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
5Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dentistry of Bauru, University of São Paulo, Bauru, SP, Brazil
6Departamento de Clínica, Patologia e Cirurgia Odontológicas, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Avnida Presidente Antônio Carlos 6627, 31.270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Received 15 June 2010; Revised 6 December 2010; Accepted 22 December 2010

Academic Editor: Xiao-Qing Wei

Copyright © 2010 Celso Martins Queiroz-Junior et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Periapical lesions are inflammatory conditions of tooth periapical tissues, triggered by dental pulp infection and characterized by exudation of immune cells to the affected tissues and production of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines. The inflammatory periapical reaction is mainly driven by Th1, Th2, and Th17 responses, and such polarization may modulate progression of the disease and expression of bone proresorptive cytokines. IL-12 is a potent inducer of IFN-γ production, which stimulates Th1 effector cells. Many evidences have shown a positive correlation between the bone resorptive cytokine IL-1β and the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ. Furthermore, IL-12 may have a potential role in the release of bone resorptive mediators and blockade of Th2 cytokines, affecting the progression of periapical bone loss. Nevertheless, IL-12 and IFN-γ have also been described as suppressors of osteoclast differentiation and activation, favoring bone maintenance. This paper focuses on the controversial roles of IL-12 in periapical lesions.