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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2011, Article ID 193963, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/193963
Review Article

Biosensing Technologies for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Detection: Status and New Developments

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Biology and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University and Key Laboratory for Bio-Nanotechnology and Molecule Engineering of Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, China

Received 20 October 2010; Revised 27 December 2010; Accepted 10 January 2011

Academic Editor: James Triccas

Copyright © 2011 Lixia Zhou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Biosensing technologies promise to improve Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) detection and management in clinical diagnosis, food analysis, bioprocess, and environmental monitoring. A variety of portable, rapid, and sensitive biosensors with immediate “on-the-spot” interpretation have been developed for M. tuberculosis detection based on different biological elements recognition systems and basic signal transducer principles. Here, we present a synopsis of current developments of biosensing technologies for M. tuberculosis detection, which are classified on the basis of basic signal transducer principles, including piezoelectric quartz crystal biosensors, electrochemical biosensors, and magnetoelastic biosensors. Special attention is paid to the methods for improving the framework and analytical parameters of the biosensors, including sensitivity and analysis time as well as automation of analysis procedures. Challenges and perspectives of biosensing technologies development for M. tuberculosis detection are also discussed in the final part of this paper.