Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 248243, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/248243
Research Article

Prolactin May Not Play a Role in Primary Antiphospholipid (Hughes') Syndrome

Disciplina de Reumatologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, No. 455, 3 Andar, Sala 3190, 01246-903 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

Received 15 October 2010; Revised 14 January 2011; Accepted 27 January 2011

Academic Editor: Clelia M. Riera

Copyright © 2011 Manoel Tavares Neves Junior et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. Orbach and Y. Shoenfeld, “Hyperprolactinemia and autoimmune diseases,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 537–542, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. J. Jara, G. Medina, M. A. Saavedra, O. Vera-Lastra, and C. Navarro, “Prolactin and autoimmunity,” Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology, pp. 1–10, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. De Bellis, A. Bizzarro, R. Pivonello, G. Lombardi, and A. Bellastella, “Prolactin and autoimmunity,” Pituitary, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. I. C. Chikanza, “Prolactin and neuroimmunomodulation: in vitro and in vivo observations,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 876, pp. 119–130, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Praprotnik, N. Agmon-Levin, B. S. Porat-Katz, M. Blank, P. L. Meroni, and R. Cervera, “Prolactin's role in the pathogenesis of the antiphospholipid syndrome,” Lupus, vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 1515–1519, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  6. K. J. Lackner, D. Peetz, and P. Von Landenberg, “Revision of the Sapporo criteria for the antiphospholipid syndrome—coming to grips with evidence and Thomas Bayes?” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 917–919, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. Nigel Harris and S. Pierangeli, “The anticardiolipin ELISA test,” Clinical Immunology Newsletter, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 33–37, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. Wisloff, E. M. Jacobsen, and S. Liestol, “Laboratory diagnosis of the antiphospholipid syndrome,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 108, no. 5-6, pp. 263–271, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. Lahat, A. Miller, R. Shtiller, and E. Touby, “Differential effects of prolactin upon activation and differentiation of human B lymphocytes,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 35–40, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. I. Krause, Z. Blumenfeld, M. Malchinsky et al., “Anti-endothelial cell antibodies in the sera of hyperprolactinemic women,” Lupus, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 377–382, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Q. Reuwer, R. Nieuwland, I. Fernandez et al., “Prolactin does not affect human platelet aggregation or secretion,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 101, no. 6, pp. 1119–1127, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Francis, R. Rai, N. J. Sebire et al., “Impaired expression of endometrial differentiation markers and complement regulatory proteins in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss associated with antiphospholipid syndrome,” Molecular Human Reproduction, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 435–442, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Leaños-Miranda, D. Pascoe-Lira, K. A. Chávez-Rueda, and F. Blanco-Favela, “Detection of macroprolactinemia with the polyethylene glycol precipitation test in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with hyperprolactinemia,” Lupus, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 340–345, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. J. Jara, C. Gomez-Sanchez, L. H. Silveira, P. Martinez-Osuna, F. B. Vasey, and L. R. Espinoza, “Hyperprolactinemia in systemic lupus erythematosus: association with disease activity,” American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 303, no. 4, pp. 222–226, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. C. Mok, C. S. Lau, K. W. Lee, and R. W. S. Wong, “Hyperprolactinemia in males with systemic lupus erythematosus,” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2357–2363, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Leaños, D. Pascoe, A. Fraga, and F. Blanco-Favela, “Anti-prolactin autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with associated hyperprolactinemia,” Lupus, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 398–403, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. W. McMurray and W. May, “Sex hormones and systemic lupus erythematosus: review and meta-analysis,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 2100–2110, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. Chuang and M. E. Molitch, “Prolactin and autoimmune diseases in humans,” Acta Bio-Medica, vol. 78, pp. 255–261, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. Ernst, M. Thurnheer, and B. Schultes, “Basal serum prolactin levels in obesity-unrelated to parameters of the metabolic syndrome and unchanged after massive weight loss,” Obesity Surgery, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1159–1162, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Vekemans and C. Robyn, “Influence of age on serum prolactin levels in women and men,” British Medical Journal, vol. 4, no. 5999, pp. 738–739, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. E. Tyson and H. G. Friesen, “Factors influencing the secretion of human prolactin and growth hormone in menstrual and gestational women,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 377–387, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. F. Sassin, A. G. Frantz, E. D. Weitzman, and S. Kapen, “Human prolactin: 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep,” Science, vol. 177, no. 4055, pp. 1205–1207, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. E. Freeman, B. Kanyicska, A. Lerant, and G. Nagy, “Prolactin: structure, function, and regulation of secretion,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 1523–1631, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus