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Figure 2: Vaccine Strategies for GBM. (From Left) Dendritic cell vaccine: peripheral blood mononuclear cells are isolated from the patient and cultured ex vivo. Cytokines are added to culture to activate the DCs. The matured DCs are pulsed with tumor antigen and then added to the vaccine preparation. Autologous tumor cell vaccine: after tumor removal, tumor cells are cultured. In some cases, these cells are modified (e.g., radiation, chemical) and then injected back into the patient. Heat shock protein vaccine: after tumor removal, tumor cells are cultured and specific heat shock proteins (e.g., Gp96) are isolated and purified. The proteins are then added to the vaccine preparation and injected into the patient.