Table 1: Selected clinical trials using cytokine modulation.

ReferencePatientsCytokineImmunologic responseClinical response

[58]
(GBM: 103, AA: 42)
TGF-βMedian survival: 39.1 mo (10 uM dose) and 35.2 mo (80 uM dose)
[63]
Recurrent GBM
IL–2Enhancement of tumor on MRI unchanged (6/9)
[64]
(GBM: 7, AA: 2)
IL–2PR: 1
[65]
recurrent GBM
IL–2Increased inflammatory infiltrate in biopsied tumorsPR: 2, SD: 4, Minor response: 4, Overall survival 58% (6 mo) and 25% (1 yr)
[69]
(GBM: 26, AA: 5)
IFN-γ
( )
PR: 3 (Treatment group), No difference in median survival between treatment and control groups
[70]
(GBM: 14, AA: 14, Other: 12)
IFN-γNo difference in median overall survival
[71]
(AA: 12, Other: 17)
IFN-βPR: 2, SD: 2
[72]
(GBM/AA: 15)
IFN-βIFN-β treatment showed no growth suppression in ex vivo assaysSD: 3
[73]
(GBM: 6, Recurrent AA: 1)
IFN-βNo response
[75]
recurrent HGG
IFN-αMedian survival: 13.3 mo
[76]
HGG
IFN-αNo difference in survival
[77]
(GBM: 6, AA: 2, Other 1)
IFN-αCR: 2
[80]
(GBM: 11, AA: 1)
IL–4Positive Elispot assayNo difference in progression free survival
[142]
recurrent GBM
IL–4Survival > 18 mo ( )
[84]
(GBM: 6, AA: 7, Other: 2)
IL–12PR: 4, Mixed response: 1