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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012, Article ID 257695, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/257695
Review Article

Cancer/Testis Antigen MAGE-C1/CT7: New Target for Multiple Myeloma Therapy

1Disciplina de Hematologia e Hemoterapia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, UNIFESP/EPM, Rua Botucatu, 04023-900 Vila Clementino, SP, Brazil
2Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, UNIFESP, 09972-270, Diadema, SP, Brazil

Received 4 November 2011; Accepted 28 December 2011

Academic Editor: Mohamad Mohty

Copyright © 2012 Fabricio de Carvalho et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTAs) are a promising class of tumor antigens that have a limited expression in somatic tissues (testis, ovary, fetal, and placental cells). Aberrant expression of CTAs in cancer cells may lead to abnormal chromosome segregation and aneuploidy. CTAs are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation and acetylation of histones) and are attractive targets for immunotherapy in cancer because the gonads are immune privileged organs and anti-CTA immune response can be tumor-specific. Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematological malignancy, and several CTAs have been detected in many MM cell lines and patients. Among CTAs expressed in MM we must highlight the MAGE-C1/CT7 located on the X chromosome and expressed specificity in the malignant plasma cells. MAGE-C1/CT7 seems to be related to disease progression and functional studies suggests that this CTA might play a role in cell cycle and mainly in survival of malignant plasma cells, protecting myeloma cells against spontaneous as well as drug-induced apoptosis.