Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 315167, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/315167
Review Article

The Place of Immunotherapy in the Management of HCV-Induced Vasculitis: An Update

1Department of Internal Medicine, Centre de Compétence pour les Maladies Autoimmunes Systémiques PACA Ouest, Hôpital de la Conception, Marseille, France
2Department of Nephrology, Hôpital de la Conception, Université Aix-Marseille, Marseille, France

Received 26 April 2012; Accepted 3 July 2012

Academic Editor: Domenico Sansonno

Copyright © 2012 Laurent Chiche et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. A. Landau, S. Scerra, D. Sene, M. Resche-Rigon, D. Saadoun, and P. Cacoub, “Causes and predictive factors of mortality in a cohort of patients with hepatitis C virus-related cryoglobulinemic vasculitis treated with antiviral therapy,” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 615–621, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. P. Manns, J. G. McHutchison, S. C. Gordon et al., “Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferonalfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 358, no. 9286, pp. 958–965, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. W. Fried, M. L. Shiffman, K. Rajender Reddy et al., “Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 347, no. 13, pp. 975–982, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. J. Hadziyannis, H. Sette, T. R. Morgan et al., “Peginterferon-α2a and ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C: a randomized study of treatment duration and ribavirin dose,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 140, no. 5, pp. 346–I67, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. Cavallo, D. Roccatello, E. Menegatti, C. Naretto, F. Napoli, and S. Baldovino, “Rituximab in cryoglobulinemic peripheral neuropathy,” Journal of Neurology, vol. 256, no. 7, pp. 1076–1082, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Petrarca, L. Rigacci, P. Caini et al., “Safety and efficacy of rituximab in patients with hepatitis C virus-related mixed cryoglobulinemia and severe liver disease,” Blood, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 335–342, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. Batisse, M. Karmochkine, C. Jacquot, M. D. Kazatchkine, and L. Weiss, “Sustained exacerbation of cryoglobulinaemia-related vasculitis following treatment of hepatitis C with peginterferon alfa,” European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 701–703, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. O. Lidove, P. Cacoub, P. Hausfater et al., “Hepatits C virus and cryoglobulinemia: worsening of peripheral neuropathy after interferon alpha treatment,” Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 403–406, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. Mazzaro, F. Zorat, M. Caizzi et al., “Treatment with peg-interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin of hepatitis C virus-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia: a pilot study,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 632–638, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. Cacoub, D. Saadoun, N. Limal, D. Sene, O. Lidove, and J. C. Piette, “PEGylated interferon Alfa-2b and ribavirin treatment in patients with hepatitis C virus-related systemic vasculitis,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 911–915, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. G. Ghany, D. R. Nelson, D. B. Strader, D. L. Thomas, and L. B. Seeff, “An update on treatment of genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus infection: 2011 practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases,” Hepatology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1433–1444, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. M. Pietrogrande, S. De Vita, A. L. Zignego et al., “Recommendations for the management of mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome in hepatitis C virus-infected patients,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 444–454, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. J. Bini and S. Mehandru, “Incidence of thyroid dysfunction during interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin therapy in men with chronic hepatitis C: a prospective cohort study,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 164, no. 21, pp. 2371–2376, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. G. D. Almeida, C. Guindalini, S. Batista-Neves, I. R. de Oliveira, A. Miranda-Scippa, and L. C. Quarantini, “Can antidepressants prevent interferon-alpha-induced depression? A review of the literature,” General Hospital Psychiatry, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 401–405, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. I. Rasul, F. A. Shepherd, S. Kamel-Reid, M. Krajden, D. Pantalony, and E. Jenny Heathcote, “Detection of occult low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection and mixed cryoglobulinemia,” Hepatology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 543–547, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. A. Landau, D. Saadoun, P. Halfon et al., “Relapse of hepatitis C virus-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis in patients with sustained viral response,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 604–611, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Casato, D. Lilli, G. Donato et al., “Occult hepatitis C virus infection in type II mixed cryoglobulinaemia,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 455–459, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. Zaghloul and W. El-Sherbiny, “Detection of occult hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus infections from peripheral blood mononuclear cells,” Immunological Investigations, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 284–291, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. W. Welker and S. Zeuzem, “Occult hepatitis C: how convincing are the current data?” Hepatology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 665–675, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Bataille, G. Kaplanski, J. Boucraut et al., “Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and mixed cryoglobulinemia after hepatitis C virus infection secondary to glomerular NS3 viral antigen deposits,” American Journal of Nephrology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 134–140, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. P. Halfon, M. Bourlière, D. Ouzan et al., “Occult hepatitis C virus infection revisited with ultrasensitive real-time PCR assay,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 2106–2108, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. Terrier, E. Krastinova, I. Marie et al., “Management of non-infectious mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis: data from 242 cases included in the CryoVas survey,” Blood, vol. 119, no. 25, pp. 5996–6004, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. M. O. Chandesris, S. Gayet, N. Schleinitz, B. Doudier, J. R. Harlé, and G. Kaplanski, “Infliximab in the treatment of refractory vasculitis secondary to heptitis C-associated mixed cryoglobulinaemia [9],” Rheumatology, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 532–533, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. Bartolucci, J. Ramanoelina, P. Cohen et al., “Efficacy of the anti-TNF-α antibody infliximab against refractory systemic vasculitidis: an open pilot study on 10 patients,” Rheumatology, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 1126–1132, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. Josselin, A. Mahr, P. Cohen et al., “Infliximab efficacy and safety against refractory systemic necrotising vasculitides: long-term follow-up of 15 patients,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 67, no. 9, pp. 1343–1346, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Cohen, A. Mekinian, N. Saidenberg-Kermanac'h et al., “Efficacy of tocilizumab in rituximab-refractory cryoglobulinemia vasculitis,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 628–629, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. D. Saadoun, M. Rosenzwajg, F. Joly et al., “Regulatory T-cell responses to low-dose interleukin-2 in HCV-induced vasculitis,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 365, no. 22, pp. 2067–2077, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  28. D. Sansonno, A. Carbone, V. De Re, and F. Dammacco, “Hepatitis C virus infection, cryoglobulinaemia, and beyond,” Rheumatology, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 572–578, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. Sansonno, V. De Re, G. Lauletta, F. A. Tucci, M. Boiocchi, and F. Dammacco, “Monoclonal antibody treatment of mixed cryoglobulinemia resistant to interferon α with an anti-CD20,” Blood, vol. 101, no. 10, pp. 3818–3826, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. F. Zaja, S. De Vita, C. Mazzaro et al., “Efficacy and safety of rituximab in type II mixed cryoglobulinemia,” Blood, vol. 101, no. 10, pp. 3827–3834, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. Quartuccio, G. Soardo, G. Romano et al., “Rituximab treatment for glomerulonephritis in HCV-associated mixed cryoglobulinaemia: efficacy and safety in the absence of steroids,” Rheumatology, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 842–846, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. F. Dammacco, F. A. Tucci, G. Lauletta et al., “Pegylated interferon-α, ribavirin, and rituximab combined therapy of hepatitis C virus-related mixed cryoglobulinemia: a long-term study,” Blood, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 343–353, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. Saadoun, M. R. Rigon, D. Sene et al., “Rituximab plus Peg-interferon-α/ribavirin compared with Peg-interferon-α/ribavirin in hepatitis C-related mixed cryoglobulinemia,” Blood, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 326–334, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. De Vita, L. Quartuccio, M. Isola et al., “A randomized controlled trial of rituximab for the treatment of severe cryoglobulinemic vasculitis,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 843–853, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. M. C. Sneller, Z. Hu, and C. A. Langford, “A randomized controlled trial of rituximab following failure of antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus-associated cryoglobulinemic vasculitis,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 835–842, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. C. Ferri, P. Cacoub, C. Mazzaro et al., “Treatment with rituximab in patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome: results of multicenter cohort study and review of the literature,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 48–55, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. P. Cacoub, A. Delluc, D. Saadoun, D. A. Landau, and D. Sene, “Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) treatment for cryoglobulinemia vasculitis: where do we stand?” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 283–287, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Brah, L. Chiche, R. Fanciullino et al., “Efficacy of rituximab in immune thrombocytopenic purpura: a retrospective survey,” Annals of Hematology, pp. 1–7, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. Sène, P. Ghillani-Dalbin, Z. Amoura, L. Musset, and P. Cacoub, “Rituximab may form a complex with IgMκ mixed cryoglobulin and induce severe systemic reactions in patients with hepatitis C virus-induced vasculitis,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 3848–3855, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. B. Terrier, D. Saadoun, D. Sène et al., “Efficacy and tolerability of rituximab with or without PEGylated interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin in severe hepatitis C virus-related vasculitis: a long-term followup study of thirty-two patients,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 2531–2540, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. B. Terrier, D. Launay, G. Kaplanski et al., “Safety and efficacy of rituximab in nonviral cryoglobulinemia vasculitis: data from the French Autoimmunity and Rituximab registry.,” Arthritis Care & Research, vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 1787–1795, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. van Assen, O. Elkayam, N. Agmon-Levin et al., “Vaccination in adult patients with auto-immune inflammatory rheumatic diseases: a systematic literature review for the European League Against Rheumatism evidence-based recommendations for vaccination in adult patients with auto-immune inflammatory rheumatic diseases,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 341–352, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. Koreth, K.-I. Matsuoka, H. T. Kim et al., “Interleukin-2 and regulatory T cells in graft-versus-host disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 365, no. 22, pp. 2055–2066, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  44. G. K. Antony and A. Z. Dudek, “Interleukin 2 in cancer therapy,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 29, pp. 3297–3302, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Y. Lévy, R. Thiébaut, M. L. Gougeon et al., “The ILIADE Study Group. Effect of intermittent interleukin-2 therapy on CD4+ T-cell counts following antiretroviral cessation in patients with HIV,” AIDS, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 711–720, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. J. A. Bluestone, H. Auchincloss, G. T. Nepom, D. Rotrosen, S. Clair, and L. A. Turka, “The immune tolerance network at 10 years: tolerance research at the bedside,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 797–803, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. A. Landau, M. Rosenzwajg, D. Saadoun, H. Trébeden-Negre, D. Klatzmann, and P. Cacoub, “Correlation of clinical and virologic responses to antiviral treatment and regulatory T cell evolution in patients with hepatitis C virus-induced mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 2897–2907, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Veerapathran, J. Pidala, F. Beato, X.-Z. Yu, and C. Anasetti, “Ex vivo expansion of human Tregs specific for alloantigens presented directly or indirectly,” Blood, vol. 118, no. 20, pp. 5671–5680, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. Y. Grinberg-Bleyer, A. Baeyens, S. You et al., “IL-2 reverses established type 1 diabetes in NOD mice by a local effect on pancreatic regulatory T cells,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 207, no. 9, pp. 1871–1878, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. A. Long, “Rapamycin plus IL 2 combination therapy in subjects with T1D results in a sustained increase in IL 2 responsiveness and a transient decrease in C-peptide levels,” in Proceedings of the 71st Scientific Sessions American Diabetes Association Annual Meeting, pp. 24–28, San Diego, Calif, USA, June 2011.
  51. K. E. Webster, S. Walters, R. E. Kohler et al., “In vivo expansion of t reg cells with il-2-mab complexes: induction of resistance to eae and long-term acceptance of islet allografts without immunosuppression,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 206, no. 4, pp. 751–760, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. L. Quartuccio, G. Soardo, G. Romano et al., “Rituximab treatment for glomerulonephritis in HCV-associated mixed cryoglobulinaemia: efficacy and safety in the absence of steroids,” Rheumatology, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 842–846, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Visentini, S. Ludovisi, A. Petrarca et al., “A phase II, single-arm multicenter study of low-dose rituximab for refractory mixed cryoglobulinemia secondary to hepatitis C virus infection,” Autoimmunity Reviews, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus