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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 397648, 13 pages
Review Article

Immunotherapy Using Dendritic Cells against Multiple Myeloma: How to Improve?

1Research Center for Cancer Immunotherapy, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun, Jeollanamdo 519-763, Republic of Korea
2Department of Hematology-Oncology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, 160 Seoyangro, Hwasun, Jeollanamdo 519-763, Republic of Korea
3Vaxcell-Bio Therapeutics, Hwasun, Jeollanamdo 519-763, Republic of Korea

Received 4 November 2011; Accepted 2 January 2012

Academic Editor: Qing Yi

Copyright © 2012 Thanh-Nhan Nguyen-Pham et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Multiple myeloma (MM) is a good target disease in which one can apply cellular immunotherapy, which is based on the graft-versus-myeloma effect. This role of immune effector cells provides the framework for the development of immune-based therapeutic options that use antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with increased potency, such as dendritic cells (DCs), in MM. Current isolated idiotype (Id), myeloma cell lysates, myeloma dying cells, DC-myeloma hybrids, or DC transfected with tumor-derived RNA has been used for immunotherapy with DCs. Immunological inhibitory cytokines, such as TGF-β, IL-10, IL-6 and VEGF, which are produced from myeloma cells, can modulate antitumor host immune response, including the abrogation of DC function, by constitutive activation of STAT3. Therefore, even the immune responses have been observed in clinical trials, the clinical response was rarely improved following DC vaccinations in MM patients. We are going to discuss how to improve the efficacy of DC vaccination in MM.