Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 515962, 12 pages
Review Article

HIV RNA Suppression and Immune Restoration: Can We Do Better?

1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, University of Catania, Catania 95125, Italy
2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA

Received 15 November 2011; Revised 2 January 2012; Accepted 15 January 2012

Academic Editor: Carlo Torti

Copyright © 2012 Marilia Rita Pinzone et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Citations to this Article [16 citations]

The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.

  • Joseph B. Sempa, Agnes N. Kiragga, Barbara Castelnuovo, Moses R. Kamya, and Yukari C. Manabe, “Among Patients with Sustained Viral Suppression in a Resource-Limited Setting, CD4 Gains Are Continuous Although Gender-Based Differences Occur,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 8, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Michele Di Rosa, Fabrizio Condorelli, Bruno Cacopardo, Giuseppe Nunnari, and Marilia Rita Pinzone, “Sirtuin-1 and HIV-1: An Overview,” Current Drug Targets, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 648–652, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Silvia Baroncelli, Maria Franca Pirillo, Clementina Maria Galluzzo, Anna Degli Antoni, Nicoletta Ladisa, Daniela Francisci, Gabriella d'Ettorre, Daniela Segala, Angela Vivarelli, Federica Sozio, Oscar Cirioni, Liliana Elena Weimer, Vincenzo Fragola, Giustino Parruti, and Marco Floridia, “Rate and Determinants of Residual Viremia in Multidrug-Experienced Patients Successfully Treated with Raltegravir-Based Regimens,” AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, pp. 140902132356004, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hans J. Hartling, Lise W. Thørner, Christian Erikstrup, Lene H. Harritshøj, Gitte Kronborg, Court Pedersen, Carsten S. Larsen, Marie Helleberg, Jan Gerstoft, Niels Obel, Henrik Ullum, and Susanne D. Nielsen, “Polymorphism in interleukin-7 receptor α gene is associated with faster CD4+ T-cell recovery after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy,” Aids, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1739–1748, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jemma L. O'Connor, Colette J. Smith, Fiona C. Lampe, Teresa Hill, Mark Gompels, Phillip Hay, David Chadwick, Martin Fisher, Jonathan Ainsworth, Richard Gilson, Nicky Mackie, Jane Anderson, Chloe Orkin, Mark Nelson, Stephen Kegg, Clifford Leen, Adrian Palfreeman, Frank Post, Margaret Johnson, Caroline A. Sabin, and Andrew N. Phillips, “Failure to achieve a CD4(+) cell count response on combination antiretroviral therapy despite consistent viral load suppression,” Aids, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 919–924, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • M. R. Petrara, M. Penazzato, W. Massavon, S. Nabachwa, M. Nannyonga, A. Mazza, K. Gianesin, P. Del Bianco, R. Lundin, C. Sumpter, M. Zanchetta, C. Giaquinto, and A. De Rossi, “Epstein-Barr Virus Load in Children Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Uganda,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Johan van Griensven, Lay Phirum, Kimcheng Choun, S Sopheak Thai, Anja De Weggheleire, and Lutgarde Lynen, “Hepatitis B and C Co-Infection among HIV-Infected Adults while on Antiretroviral Treatment: Long-Term Survival, CD4 Cell Count Recovery and Antiretroviral Toxicity in Cambodia,” Plos One, vol. 9, no. 2, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gabriella d'Ettorre, Silvia Baroncelli, Luca Micci, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Mauro Andreotti, Prachi Sharma, Gianfranco Fanello, Fausto Fiocca, Eugenio Nelson Cavallari, Noemi Giustini, Alessandra Mallano, Clementina M. Galluzzo, Stefano Vella, Claudio M. Mastroianni, Guido Silvestri, Mirko Paiardini, and Vincenzo Vullo, “Reconstitution of Intestinal CD4 and Th17 T Cells in Antiretroviral Therapy Suppressed HIV-Infected Subjects: Implication for Residual Immune Activation from the Results of a Clinical Trial,” Plos One, vol. 9, no. 10, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Doungnapa Kingkeow, Sarinee Srithep, Jutarat Praparattanapan, Khuanchai Supparatpinyo, and Sakorn Pornprasert, “Thymic Function during 12 Months of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Thai HIV-Infected Patients with Normal and Slow Immune Recovery,” Japanese Journal Of Infectious Diseases, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 353–356, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • G. Batista, A. Buvé, N.F. Ngom Gueye, N.M. Manga, M.N. Diop, K. Ndiaye, A. Thiam, F. Ly, A. Diallo, C.T. Ndour, and M. Seydi, “Initial suboptimal CD4 reconstitution with antiretroviral therapy despite full viral suppression in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in Senegal,” Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marilia Rita Pinzone, Massimiliano Berretta, Bruno Cacopardo, and Giuseppe Nunnari, “Epstein-Barr Virus– and Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus–Related Malignancies in the Setting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection,” Seminars in Oncology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 258–271, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Fengdi Zhang, Meiyan Sun, Jianjun Sun, Liqian Guan, Jiangrong Wang, and Hongzhou Lu, “The risk factors for suboptimal CD4 recovery in HIV infected population: an observational and retrospective study in Shanghai, China,” Bioscience Trends, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 335–341, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Joseph B. Sempa, Jonathan Dushoff, Michael J. Daniels, Barbara Castelnuovo, Agnes N. Kiragga, Martin Nieuwoudt, and Steven E. Bellan, “Reevaluating Cumulative HIV-1 Viral Load as a Prognostic Predictor: Predicting Opportunistic Infection Incidence and Mortality in a Ugandan Cohort,” American Journal of Epidemiology, pp. kwv303, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Bruno Cacopardo, Francesco Bellissimo, Marilia Rita Pinzone, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, and Giuseppe Nunnari, “Baseline CD4/CD8 t-cell ratio predicts prompt immune restoration upon cART initiation,” Current HIV Research, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 491–496, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Houda Haban, Soumia Benchekroun, Mina Sadeq, Abdelaziz Benjouad, Said Amzazi, Hicham Oumzil, and Elmir Elharti, “Assessment of the HBV vaccine response in a group of HIV-infected children in Morocco,” BMC Public Health, vol. 17, no. 1, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Joseph B. Sempa, Eva L. Ujeneza, and Martin Nieuwoudt, “Systematic review of statistically-derived models of immunological response in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa,” Plos One, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. e0171658, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar