Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012, Article ID 705013, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/705013
Review Article

HCV Proteins and Immunoglobulin Variable Gene (IgV) Subfamilies in HCV-Induced Type II Mixed Cryoglobulinemia: A Concurrent Pathogenetic Role

Laboratorio di Microbiologia e Virologia, Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Via Olgettina, 58, 20132 Milano, Italy

Received 13 February 2012; Accepted 2 April 2012

Academic Editor: Domenico Sansonno

Copyright © 2012 Giuseppe Sautto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. O. Trejo, M. Ramos-Casals, M. Garcia-Carrasco et al., “Cryoglobulinemia: study of etiologic factors and clinical and immunologic features in 443 patients from a single center,” Medicine, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 252–262, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. Ferri, M. Sebastiani, D. Giuggioli et al., “Mixed cryoglobulinemia: demographic, clinical, and serologic features and survival in 231 patients,” Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 355–374, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. F. J. Authier, J. M. Pawlotsky, J. P. Viard, L. Guillevin, J. D. Degos, and R. K. Gherardi, “High incidence of hepatitis C virus infection in patients with cryoglobulinemic neuropathy,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 749–750, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. Daghestani and C. Pomeroy, “Renal manifestations of hepatitis C infection,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 347–354, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. F. Dammacco and D. Sansonno, “Mixed cryoglobulinemia as a model of systemic vasculitis,” Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 97–119, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. V. Agnello, “The aetiology of mixed cryoglobulinaemia associated with hepatitis C virus infection,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 179–184, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. Vassilopoulos and L. H. Calabrese, “Hepatitis C virus infection and vasculitis: implications of antiviral and immunosuppressive therapies,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 585–597, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. Donada, A. Crucitti, V. Donadon et al., “Systemic manifestations and liver disease in patients with chronic hepatitis C and type II or III mixed cryoglobulinaemia,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 179–185, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. Saadoun, M. Resche-Rigon, V. Thibault, J. C. Piette, and P. Cacoub, “Antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis: a long-term followup study,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 3696–3706, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. V. Racanelli, D. Sansonno, C. Piccoli, F. P. D'Amore, F. A. Tucci, and F. Dammacco, “Molecular characterization of B cell clonal expansions in the liver of chronically hepatitis C virus-infected patients,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 167, no. 1, pp. 21–29, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. F. Marcucci and A. Mele, “Hepatitis viruses and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: epidemiology, mechanisms of tumorigenesis, and therapeutic opportunities,” Blood, vol. 117, no. 6, pp. 1792–1798, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. F. Invernizzi, M. Galli, and G. Serino, “Secondary and essential cryoglobulinemias. Frequency, nosological classification, and long-term follow-up,” Acta Haematologica, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 73–82, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Ohsawa, N. Shingu, H. Miwa et al., “Risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in patients with hepatitis C virus infection,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 237–239, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  14. T. P. Giordano, L. Henderson, O. Landgren et al., “Risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and lymphoproliferative precursor diseases in US veterans with hepatitis C virus,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 297, no. 18, pp. 2010–2017, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Y. Kawamura, K. Ikeda, Y. Arase et al., “Viral elimination reduces incidence of malignant lymphoma in patients with Hepatitis C,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 120, no. 12, pp. 1034–1041, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Ivanovski, F. Silvestri, G. Pozzato et al., “Somatic hypermutation, clonal diversity, and preferential expression of the VH 51p1/VL kv325 immunoglobulin gene combination in hepatitis C virus-associated immunocytomas,” Blood, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 2433–2442, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. V. De Re, S. De Vita, D. Gasparotto et al., “Salivary gland B cell lymphoproliferative disorders in Sjogren's syndrome present a restricted use of antigen receptor gene segments similar to those used by hepatitis C virus-associated non-Hodgkins's lymphomas,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 903–910, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  18. D. Gasparotto, V. De Re, and M. Boiocchi, “Hepatitis C virus, B-cell proliferation and lymphomas,” Leukemia and Lymphoma, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 747–751, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Monteverde, M. Ballare, and S. Pileri, “Hepatic lymphoid aggregates in chronic hepatitis C and mixed cryoglobulinemia,” Springer Seminars in Immunopathology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 99–110, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. Sansonno, A. Carbone, V. De Re, and F. Dammacco, “Hepatitis C virus infection, cryoglobulinaemia, and beyond,” Rheumatology, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 572–578, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. Sansonno, G. Lauletta, V. De Re et al., “Intrahepatic B cell clonal expansions and extrahepatic manifestations of chronic HCV infection,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 126–136, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Murakami, Y. Shimizu, Y. Kashi et al., “Functional B-cell response in intrahepatic lymphoid follicles in chronic hepatitis C,” Hepatology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 143–150, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. B. Fan, Y. F. Zhu, A. S. Chen et al., “B-cell clonality in the liver of hepatitis C virus-infected patients,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 15, no. 13, pp. 1636–1640, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. Sansonno, S. De Vita, A. R. Iacobelli, V. Cornacchiulo, M. Boiocchi, and F. Dammacco, “Clonal analysis of intrahepatic B cells from HCV-infected patients with and without mixed cryoglobulinemia,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 160, no. 7, pp. 3594–3601, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. R. Magalini, F. Facchetti, L. Salvi, L. Fontana, M. Puoti, and A. Scarpa, “Clonality of B-cells in portal lymphoid infiltrates of HCV-infected livers,” Journal of Pathology, vol. 185, no. 1, pp. 86–90, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  26. P. D. Gorevic and B. Frangione, “Mixed cryoglobulinemia cross-reactive idiotypes: implications for the relationship of MC to rheumatic and lymphoproliferative diseases,” Seminars in Hematology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 79–94, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. Sansonno, F. A. Tucci, S. Sansonno, G. Lauletta, L. Troiani, and D. Sansonno, “B cells and HCV: an infection model of autoimmunity,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 93–94, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. M. Gottwein, T. K. H. Scheel, T. B. Jensen et al., “Development and characterization of hepatitis C virus genotype 1–7 cell culture systems: role of CD81 and scavenger receptor class B type I and effect of antiviral drugs,” Hepatology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 364–377, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. Simmonds, J. Bukh, C. Combet et al., “Consensus proposals for a unified system of nomenclature of hepatitis C virus genotypes,” Hepatology, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 962–973, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Ramos-Casals, X. Forns, P. Brito-Zeron et al., “Cryoglobulinaemia associated with hepatitis C virus: influence of HCV genotypes, HCV-RNA viraemia and HIV coinfection,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 736–742, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Crovatto, S. Ceselli, C. Mazzaro et al., “HCV genotypes and cryoglobulinemia,” Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, vol. 13, supplement 13, pp. S79–S82, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. A. Sinico, M. L. Ribero, A. Fornasieri et al., “Hepatitis C virus genotype in patients with essential mixed cryoglobulinaemia,” QJM, vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 805–810, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. G. Zehender, C. de Maddalena, G. Monti et al., “HCV genotypes in bone marrow and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia,” Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, vol. 13, no. 13, pp. S87–S90, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. L. Zignego, C. Ferri, C. Giannini et al., “Hepatitis C virus genotype analysis in patients with type II mixed cryoglobulinemia,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 31–34, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. U. A. Ashfaq, T. Javed, S. Rehman, Z. Nawaz, and S. Riazuddin, “An overview of HCV molecular biology, replication and immune responses,” Virology Journal, vol. 8, article 161, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Wack, E. Soldaini, C. Tseng, S. Nuti, G. Klimpel, and S. Abrignani, “Binding of the hepatitis C virus envelope protein E2 to CD81 provides a co-stimulatory signal for human T cells,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 166–175, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  37. D. Sansonno and F. Dammacco, “Hepatitis C virus, cryoglobulinaemia, and vasculitis: immune complex relations,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 227–236, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. Tanaka, J. Y. N. Lau, M. Mizokami et al., “Simple fluorescent enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of hepatitis C viremia,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 742–745, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Z. Q. Yao, D. T. Nguyen, A. I. Hiotellis, and Y. S. Hahn, “Hepatitis C virus core protein inhibits human T lymphocyte responses by a complement-dependent regulatory pathway,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 167, no. 9, pp. 5264–5272, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. B. Ghebrehiwet and E. I. Peerschke, “Structure and function of gC1q-R: a multiligand binding cellular protein,” Immunobiology, vol. 199, no. 2, pp. 225–238, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. Sansonno, F. A. Tucci, B. Ghebrehiwet et al., “Role of the receptor for the globular domain of C1q protein in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus-related cryoglobulin vascular damage,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 183, no. 9, pp. 6013–6020, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. Sansonno, G. Lauletta, L. Nisi et al., “Non-enveloped HCV core protein as constitutive antigen of cold-precipitable immune complexes in type II mixed cryoglobulinaemia,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 275–282, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. Sansonno, L. Gesualdo, C. Manno, F. P. Schena, and F. Dammacco, “Hepatitis C virus-related proteins in kidney tissue from hepatitis C virus-infected patients with cryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis,” Hepatology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1237–1244, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. T. Stokol, P. O'Donnell, L. Xiao et al., “C1q governs deposition of circulating immune complexes and leukocyte Fcγ receptors mediate subsequent neutrophil recruitment,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 200, no. 7, pp. 835–846, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. B. Ray, K. Meyer, and R. Ray, “Suppression of apoptotic cell death by hepatitis C virus core protein,” Virology, vol. 226, no. 2, pp. 176–182, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. V. Agnello and G. Abel, “Localization of hepatitis C virus in cutaneous vasculitic lesions in patients with type II cryoglobulinemia,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 2007–2015, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. Y. W. Hu, L. Rocheleau, B. Larke et al., “Immunoglobulin mimicry by Hepatitis C Virus envelope protein E2,” Virology, vol. 332, no. 2, pp. 538–549, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. H. L. Ploegh, “Viral strategies of immune evasion,” Science, vol. 280, no. 5361, pp. 248–253, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. T. Seet, J. B. Johnston, C. R. Brunetti et al., “Poxviruses and immune evasion,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 21, pp. 377–423, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. T. Vossen, E. M. Westerhout, C. Soderberg-Naucler, and E. J. H. Wiertz, “Viral immune evasion: a masterpiece of evolution,” Immunogenetics, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 527–542, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. D. R. Taylor, “Hepatitis C virus: evasion of the interferon-induced antiviral response,” Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 182–190, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. Ferri, F. Dal Pero, G. Bortoletto et al., “Detailed analysis of the E2-IgM complex in hepatitis C-related type II mixed cryoglobulinaemia,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 166–176, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Martell, J. I. Esteban, J. Quer et al., “Dynamic behavior of hepatitis C virus quasispecies in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation,” Journal of Virology, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 3425–3436, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. Z. Lawal, J. Petrik, V. S. Wong, G. J. M. Alexander, and J. P. Allain, “Hepatitis C virus genomic variability in untreated and immunosuppressed patients,” Virology, vol. 228, no. 1, pp. 107–111, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. V. De Re, S. De Vita, A. Marzotto et al., “Sequence analysis of the immunoglobulin antigen receptor of hepatitis C virus-associated non-Hodgkin lymphomas suggests that the malignant cells are derived from the rheumatoid factorn-producing cells that occur mainly in type II cryoglobulinemia,” Blood, vol. 96, no. 10, pp. 3578–3584, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. E. R. Quinn, C. H. Chan, K. G. Hadlock, S. K. H. Foung, M. Flint, and S. Levy, “The B-cell receptor of a hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma binds the viral E2 envelope protein, implicating HCV in lymphomagenesis,” Blood, vol. 98, no. 13, pp. 3745–3749, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. Ito, H. Kusunoki, K. Mochida, K. Yamaguchi, and T. Mizuochi, “HCV infection and B-cell lymphomagenesis,” Advances in Hematology, vol. 2011, Article ID 835314, 8 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. T. N. Q. Pham and T. I. Michalak, “Occult persistence and lymphotropism of hepatitis C virus infection,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 14, no. 18, pp. 2789–2793, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. D. A. Landau, D. Saadoun, L. H. Calabrese, and P. Cacoub, “The pathophysiology of HCV induced B-cell clonal disorders,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 581–587, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. K. Machida, K. T. H. Cheng, N. Pavio, V. M. H. Sung, and M. M. C. Lai, “Hepatitis C virus E2-CD81 interaction induces hypermutation of the immunoglobulin gene in B cells,” Journal of Virology, vol. 79, no. 13, pp. 8079–8089, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. P. Ou-Yang, B. L. Chiang, L. H. Hwang et al., “Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 3: different antigenic determinants from human B cells,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 345–50, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  62. R. Prabhu, N. Khalap, R. Burioni, M. Clementi, R. F. Garry, and S. Dash, “Inhibition of hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein, helicase activity, and viral replication by a recombinant human antibody clone,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 165, no. 4, pp. 1163–1173, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. P. K. Chandra, S. Hazari, B. Poat et al., “Intracytoplasmic stable expression of IgG1 antibody targeting NS3 helicase inhibits replication of highly efficient hepatitis C Virus 2a clone,” Virology Journal, vol. 7, article 118, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Puoti, A. Zonaro, A. Ravaggi, M. G. Marin, F. Castelnuovo, and E. Cariani, “Hepatitis C virus RNA and antibody response in the clinical course of acute hepatitis C virus infection,” Hepatology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 877–881, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. Sallberg, Z. X. Zhang, M. Chen et al., “Immunogenicity and antigenicity of the ATPase/helicase domain of the hepatitis C virus non-structural 3 protein,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 77, no. 11, pp. 2721–2728, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. Takaki, M. Wiese, G. Maertens et al., “Cellular immune responses persist and humoral responses decrease two decades after recovery from a single-source outbreak of hepatitis C,” Nature Medicine, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 578–582, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. C. L. Day, G. M. Lauer, G. K. Robbins et al., “Broad specificity of virus-specific CD4+ T-helper-cell responses in resolved hepatitis C virus infection,” Journal of Virology, vol. 76, no. 24, pp. 12584–12595, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. H. M. Diepolder, R. Zachoval, R. M. Hoffmann et al., “Possible mechanism involving T-lymphocyte response to non-structural protein 3 in viral clearance in acute hepatitis C virus infection,” The Lancet, vol. 346, no. 8981, pp. 1006–1007, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. V. De Re, D. Sansonno, M. P. Simula et al., “HCV-NS3 and IgG-Fc crossreactive IgM in patients with type II mixed cryoglobulinemia and B-cell clonal proliferations,” Leukemia, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1145–1154, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. B. Wolk, C. Trautwein, B. Buchele et al., “Identification of naturally processed hepatitis C virus-derived major histocompatibility complex class I ligands,” PloS ONE, vol. 7, no. 1, Article ID e29286, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  71. S. Bataille, G. Kaplanski, J. Boucraut et al., “Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and mixed cryoglobulinemia after hepatitis C virus infection secondary to glomerular NS3 viral antigen deposits,” American Journal of Nephrology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 134–140, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  72. M. Anzola and J. J. Burgos, “Hepatocellular carcinoma: molecular interactions between hepatitis C virus and p53 in hepatocarcinogenesis,” Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine, vol. 5, no. 28, pp. 1–16, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. G. Mousseau, S. Kota, V. Takahashi, D. N. Frick, and A. D. Strosberg, “Dimerization-driven interaction of hepatitis C virus core protein with NS3 helicase,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 101–111, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. Z. Tu, H. K. Hamalainen-Laanaya, C. Nishitani, Y. Kuroki, I. N. Crispe, and M. S. Orloff, “HCV core and NS3 proteins manipulate human blood-derived dendritic cell development and promote Th 17 differentiation,” International Immunology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 97–106, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  75. M. Perotti, N. Ghidoli, R. Altara et al., “Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-driven stimulation of subfamily-restricted natural IgM antibodies in mixed cryoglobulinemia,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 468–472, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. V. Racanelli, C. Brunetti, V. De Re et al., “Antibody Vh repertoire differences between resolving and chronically evolving hepatitis C virus infections,” PloS ONE, vol. 6, no. 9, Article ID e25606, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  77. V. De Re, S. De Vita, D. Sansonno et al., “Type II mixed cryoglobulinaemia as an oligo rather than a mono B-cell disorder: evidence from GeneScan and MALDI-TOF analyses,” Rheumatology, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 685–693, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. M. Carbonari, E. Caprini, T. Tedesco et al., “Hepatitis C virus drives the unconstrained monoclonal expansion of V H1-69-expressing memory B cells in type II cryoglobulinemia: a model of infection-driven lymphomagenesis,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 174, no. 10, pp. 6532–6539, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. R. Marasca, P. Vaccari, M. Luppi et al., “Immunoglobulin gene mutations and frequent use of VH1-69 and VH4-34 segments in hepatitis C virus-positive and hepatitis C virus-negative nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 159, no. 1, pp. 253–261, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. K. Ohtsubo, M. Sata, T. Kawaguchi et al., “Characterization of the light chain-restricted clonal B cells in peripheral blood of HCV-positive patients,” International Journal of Hematology, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 452–459, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. H. P. Brezinscher, R. I. Brezinchek, T. Dörner, and P. E. Lipsky, “Similar characteristics of the CDR3 of V(H)1-69/DP-10 rearrangements in normal human peripheral blood and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia B cells,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 516–521, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. E. H. Sasso, K. W. van Dijk, A. P. Bull, and E. C. B. Milner, “A fetally expressed immunoglobulin V(H)1 gene belongs to a complex set of alleles,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 2358–2367, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. H. W. Schroeder Jr., J. L. Hillson, and R. M. Perlmutter, “Early restriciton of the human antibody repertoire,” Science, vol. 238, no. 4828, pp. 791–793, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. C. H. Chan, K. G. Hadlock, S. K. H. Foung, and S. Levy, “VH1-69 gene is preferentially used by hepatitis C virus-associated B cell lymphomas and by normal B cells responding to the E2 viral antigen,” Blood, vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 1023–1026, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. Z. Y. Keck, J. Xia, Z. Cai et al., “Immunogenic and functional organization of hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoprotein E2 on infectious HCV virions,” Journal of Virology, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 1043–1047, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. N. Mancini, R. A. Diotti, M. Perotti et al., “Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may elicit neutralizing antibodies targeting epitopes conserved in all viral genotypes,” PloS ONE, vol. 4, no. 12, Article ID e8254, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. Perotti, N. Mancini, R. A. Diotti et al., “Identification of a broadly cross-reacting and neutralizing human monoclonal antibody directed against the hepatitis C virus E2 protein,” Journal of Virology, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 1047–1052, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. R. Burioni, P. Plaisant, A. Manzin et al., “Dissection of human humoral immune response against hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein by repertoire cloning and generation of recombinant Fab fragments,” Hepatology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 810–814, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. D. Corti, A. L. Suguitan, D. Pinna et al., “Heterosubtypic neutralizing antibodies are produced by individuals immunized with a seasonal influenza vaccine,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 120, no. 5, pp. 1663–1673, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. J. Sui, W. C. Hwang, S. Perez et al., “Structural and functional bases for broad-spectrum neutralization of avian and human influenza A viruses,” Nature Structural and Molecular Biology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 265–273, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. N. Mancini, L. Solforosi, N. Clementi, D. De Marco, M. Clementi, and R. Burioni, “A potential role for monoclonal antibodies in prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of influenza,” Antiviral Research, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 15–26, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. C. C. Huang, M. Venturi, S. Majeed et al., “Structural basis of tyrosine sulfation and VH-gene usage in antibodies that recognize the HIV type 1 coreceptor-binding site on gp120,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 9, pp. 2706–2711, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. A. K. Kashyap, J. Steel, A. F. Oner et al., “Combinatorial antibody libraries from survivors of the Turkish H5N1 avian influenza outbreak reveal virus neutralization strategies,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 16, pp. 5986–5991, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. M. Throsby, E. van den Brink, M. Jongeneelen et al., “Heterosubtypic neutralizing monoclonal antibodies cross-protective against H5N1 and H1N1 recovered from human IgM+ memory B cells,” PloS ONE, vol. 3, no. 12, Article ID e3942, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. D. C. Ekiert, G. Bhabha, M. A. Elsliger et al., “Antibody recognition of a highly conserved influenza virus epitope,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5924, pp. 246–251, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. F. Breden, C. Lepik, N. S. Longo, M. Montero, P. E. Lipsky, and J. K. Scott, “Comparison of antibody repertoires produced by HIV-1 infection, other chronic and acute infections, and systemic autoimmune disease,” PloS ONE, vol. 6, no. 3, Article ID e16857, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. G. B. Knight, L. Gao, L. Gragnani et al., “Detection of WA B cells in hepatitis C virus infection: a potential prognostic marker for cryoglobulinemic vasculitis and B cell malignancies,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 2152–2159, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. E. D. Charles, M. I. M. Orloff, and L. B. Dustin, “A flow cytometry-based strategy to identify and express IgM from VH1-69+ clonal peripheral B cells,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 363, no. 2, pp. 210–220, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. E. D. Charles, R. M. Green, S. Marukian et al., “Clonal expansion of immunoglobulin M+CD27+ B cells in HCV-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia,” Blood, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 1344–1356, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. C. Fazi, A. Dagklis, F. Cottini et al., “Monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis in hepatitis C virus infected individuals,” Cytometry B, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. S61–S68, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. A. L. Foreman, J. Van de Water, M. L. Gougeon, and M. E. Gershwin, “B cells in autoimmune diseases: insights from analyses of immunoglobulin variable (Ig V) gene usage,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 387–401, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. C. G. Mackworth-Young, I. J. Harmer, and R. A. Mageed, “The role of antigen in the selection of the human V3-23 immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 134, no. 3, pp. 420–425, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. V. De Re, M. P. Simula, A. Pavan et al., “Characterization of antibodies directed against the immunoglobulin light κ chain variable chain region (VK) of hepatitis C virus-related type-II mixed cryoglobulinemia and B-cell proliferations,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1173, pp. 152–160, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. L. Buonaguro, A. Petrizzo, M. Tornesello et al., “Immune signatures in human PBMCs of idiotypic vaccine for HCV-related lymphoproliferative disorders,” Journal of Translational Medicine, vol. 8, article 18, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. B. T. Messmer, E. Albesiano, D. G. Efremov et al., “Multiple distinct sets of stereotyped antigen receptors indicate a role for antigen in promoting chronic lymphocytic leukemia,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 200, no. 4, pp. 519–525, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. R. J. Bende, W. M. Aarts, R. G. Riedl, D. de Jong, S. T. Pals, and C. J. M. van Noesel, “Among B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, MALT lymphomas express a unique antibody repertoire with frequent rheumatoid factor reactivity,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 201, no. 8, pp. 1229–1241, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. M. Herve, K. Xu, Y. S. Ng et al., “Unmutated and mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemias derive from self-reactive B cell precursors despite expressing different antibody reactivity,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 115, no. 6, pp. 1636–1643, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. C. C. Chu, R. Catera, L. Zhang et al., “Many chronic lymphocytic leukemia antibodies recognize apoptotic cells with exposed nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA: implications for patient outcome and cell of origin,” Blood, vol. 115, no. 19, pp. 3907–3915, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. K. N. Potter, P. Hobby, S. Klijn, F. K. Stevenson, and B. J. Sutton, “Evidence for involvement of a hydrophobic patch in framework region 1 of human V4-34-encoded Igs in recognition of the red blood cell I antigen,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 169, no. 7, pp. 3777–3782, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. K. N. Potter, “Molecular characterization of cold agglutinins,” Transfusion Science, vol. 22, no. 1-2, pp. 113–119, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. R. Domiati-Saad, J. F. Attrep, H. P. Brezinschek, A. H. Cherrie, D. R. Karp, and P. E. Lipsky, “Staphylococcal enterotoxin D functions as a human B cell superantigen by rescuing VH4-expressing B cells from apoptosis,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 156, no. 10, pp. 3608–3620, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. A. L. D. de Cerio, N. Zabalegui, M. Rodriguez-Calvillo, S. Inoges, and M. Bendandi, “Anti-idiotype antibodies in cancer treatment,” Oncogene, vol. 26, no. 25, pp. 3594–3602, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. M. B. Oldstone, “Molecular mimicry and immune-mediated diseases,” FASEB Journal, vol. 12, no. 13, pp. 1255–1265, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. R. Burioni, F. Canducci, D. Saita et al., “Antigen-driven evolution of B lymphocytes in coronary atherosclerotic plaques,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 183, no. 4, pp. 2537–2544, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. E. M. Bradshaw, A. Orihuela, S. L. McArdel et al., “A local antigen-driven humoral response is present in the inflammatory myopathies,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. 547–556, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. G. P. Owens, A. M. Ritchie, M. P. Burgoon, R. A. Williamson, J. R. Corboy, and D. H. Gilden, “Single-cell repertoire analysis demonstrates that clonal expansion is a prominent feature of the B cell response in multiple sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 171, no. 5, pp. 2725–2733, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. M. Hoffmann, M. M. Uttenreuther-Fischer, H. Lerch, G. Gaedicke, and P. Fischer, “IVIG-bound IgG and IgM cloned by phage display from a healthy individual reveal the same restricted germ-line gene origin as in autoimmune thrombocytopenia,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 37–46, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. F. Suarez, O. Lortholary, O. Hermine, and M. Lecuit, “Infection-associated lymphomas derived from marginal zone B cells: a model of antigen-driven lymphoproliferation,” Blood, vol. 107, no. 8, pp. 3034–3044, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. R. R. Da, Y. Qin, D. Baeten, and Y. Zhang, “B cell clonal expansion and somatic hypermutation of Ig variable heavy chain genes in the synovial membrane of patients with osteoarthritis,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. 557–565, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus