Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012, Article ID 762541, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/762541
Review Article

Review on Autoimmune Reactions in Female Infertility: Antibodies to Follicle Stimulating Hormone

1Department of Immunology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, University of Tartu, Ravila Street 19, Biomedicum, Tartu 50411, Estonia
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tartu, L. Puusepa 8, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
3Competence Centre on Reproductive Medicine and Biology, Tiigi 61b, Tartu 50410, Estonia

Received 27 May 2011; Accepted 3 August 2011

Academic Editor: Gilbert Faure

Copyright © 2012 Kadri Haller-Kikkatalo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. T. Baird, G. Benagiano, J. Cohen et al., “Physiopathological determinants of human infertility,” Human Reproduction Update, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 435–447, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. “Infertility revisited: the state of the art today and tomorrow. The ESHRE Capri Workshop. European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology,” Human Reproduction, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1779–1807, 1996.
  3. A. Templeton, J. K. Morris, and W. Parslow, “Factors that affect outcome of in-vitro fertilisation treatment,” Lancet, vol. 348, no. 9039, pp. 1402–1406, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Templeton and J. K. Morris, “Reducing the risk of multiple births by transfer of two embryos after in vitro fertilization,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 339, no. 9, pp. 573–577, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. C. Steptoe and R. G. Edwards, “Birth after the reimplantation of a human embryo,” Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8085, p. 366, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. G. Nygren, A. N. Andersen, and L. Gianaroli, “Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 1999. Results generated from European registers by ESHRE,” Human Reproduction, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 3260–3274, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. I. T. Chilcott, R. Margara, H. Cohen et al., “Pregnancy outcome is not affected by antiphospholipid antibody status in women referred for in vitro fertilization,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 526–530, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. Geva, Y. Yaron, J. B. Lessing et al., “Circulating autoimmune antibodies may be responsible for implantation failure in in vitro fertilization,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 802–806, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. Gleicher, “The role of humoral immunity in endometriosis,” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Supplement, vol. 73, no. 159, pp. 15–17, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. D. Hornstein, O. K. Davis, J. B. Massey, R. J. Paulson, and J. A. Collins, “Antiphospholipid antibodies and in vitro fertilization success: a meta-analysis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 330–333, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. F. Mecacci, E. Parretti, R. Cioni et al., “Thyroid autoimmunity and its association with non-organ-specific antibodies and subclinical alterations of thyroid function in women with a history of pregnancy loss or preeclampsia,” Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 39–50, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. N. Gleicher, “Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) affect in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 330–331, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  13. G. T. Nepom and W. W. Kwok, “Molecular basis for HLA-DQ associations with IDDM,” Diabetes, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1177–1184, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. A. Muraro and D. C. Douek, “Renewing the T cell repertoire to arrest autoimmune aggression,” Trends in Immunology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 61–67, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. M. Jasinski and G. S. Eisenbarth, “Insulin as a primary autoantigen for type 1A diabetes,” Clinical & Developmental Immunology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 181–186, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. Vafiadis, H. Ounissi-Benkalha, M. Palumbo et al., “Class III alleles of the variable number of tandem repeat insulin polymorphism associated with silencing of thymic insulin predispose to type 1 diabetes,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 8, pp. 3705–3710, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. Gobert, P. Barbarino-Monnier, F. Guillet-May, M. C. Bene, and G. C. Faure, “Anti-ovary antibodies after attempts at human in vitro fertilization induced by follicular puncture rather than hormonal stimulation,” Journal of Reproduction & Fertility, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 213–218, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. A. Byersdorfer, G. G. Schweitzer, and E. R. Unanue, “Diabetes is predicted by the β cell level of autoantigen,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 175, no. 7, pp. 4347–4354, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. Fénichel, B. Gobert, Y. Carré, P. Barbarino-Monnier, and S. Hiéronimus, “Polycystic ovary syndrome in autoimmune disease,” Lancet, vol. 353, no. 9171, p. 2210, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  20. V. K. Tuohy and R. P. Kinkel, “Epitope spreading: a mechanism for progression of autoimmune disease,” Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 347–351, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. N. Gleicher, A. El-Roeiy, E. Confino, and J. Friberg, “Is endometriosis an autoimmune disease?” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 115–122, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Forges, P. Monnier-Barbarino, G. C. Faure, and M. C. Béné, “Autoimmunity and antigenic targets in ovarian pathology,” Human Reproduction Update, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 163–175, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. Geva, A. Amit, L. Lerner-Geva, and J. B. Lessing, “Autoimmunity and reproduction,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 599–611, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Matarese, G. de Placido, Y. Nikas, and C. Alviggi, “Pathogenesis of endometriosis: natural immunity dysfunction or autoimmune disease?” Trends in Molecular Medicine, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 223–228, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. Reimand, I. Talja, K. Metsküla, Ü. Kadastik, K. Matt, and R. Uibo, “Autoantibody studies of female patients with reproductive failure,” Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 167–176, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. S. Bats, P. M. Barbarino, M. C. Bene, G. C. Faure, and T. Forges, “Local lymphocytic and epithelial activation in a case of autoimmune oophoritis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 849.e5–849.e8, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Yan, D. Schoenfeld, C. Penney, K. Hurxthal, A. E. Taylor, and D. Faustman, “Identification of premature ovarian failure patients with underlying autoimmunity,” Journal of Women's Health and Gender-Based Medicine, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 275–287, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. G. Crosignani and B. L. Rubin, “Optimal use of infertility diagnostic tests and treatments. The ESHRE Capri Workshop Group,” Human Reproduction, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 723–732, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  29. P. Fénichel, C. Sosset, P. Barbarino-Monnier et al., “Prevalence, specificity and significance of ovarian antibodies during spontaneous premature ovarian failure,” Human Reproduction, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 2623–2628, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. L. Luborsky, I. Visintin, S. Boyers, T. Asari, B. Caldwell, and A. DeCherney, “Ovarian antibodies detected by immobilized antigen immunoassay in patients with premature ovarian failure,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 69–75, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. L. Kelkar, P. K. Meherji, S. S. Kadam, S. K. Gupta, and T. D. Nandedkar, “Circulating auto-antibodies against the zona pellucida and thyroid microsomal antigen in women with premature ovarian failure,” Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 53–67, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Luborsky, B. Llanes, S. Davies, Z. Binor, E. Radwanska, and R. Pong, “Ovarian autoimmunity: greater frequency of autoantibodies in premature menopause and unexplained infertility than in the general population,” Clinical Immunology, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 368–374, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Dunaif, “Hyperandrogenic anovulation (PCOS): a unique disorder of insulin action associated with an increased risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 98, no. 1A, pp. 33S–39S, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. E. S. Knochenhauer, T. J. Key, M. Kahsar-Miller, W. Waggoner, L. R. Boots, and R. Azziz, “Prevalence of the polycystic ovary syndrome in unselected black and white women of the Southeastern United States: a prospective study,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 83, no. 9, pp. 3078–3082, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. “Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS),” Human Reproduction, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 41–47, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Dunaif, “Insulin resistance and the polycystic ovary syndrome: mechanism and implications for pathogenesis,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 774–800, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. Harborne, R. Fleming, H. Lyall, J. Norman, and N. Sattar, “Descriptive review of the evidence for the use of metformin in polycystic ovary syndrome,” Lancet, vol. 361, no. 9372, pp. 1894–1901, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. A. Land and J. L. Evers, “Chlamydia infection and subfertility,” Best Practice & Research: Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 901–912, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Uusküla, T. Plank, A. Lassus, and J. S. Bingham, “Sexually transmitted infections in Estonia—syndromic management of urethritis in a European country?” International Journal of STD & AIDS, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 493–498, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Uusküla, H. Silm, and T. Vessin, “Sexually transmitted diseases in Estonia: past and present,” International Journal of STD & AIDS, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 446–450, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. H. C. Wiesenfeld, S. L. Hillier, M. A. Krohn et al., “Lower genital tract infection and endometritis: insight into subclinical pelvic inflammatory disease,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 456–463, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. K. Rodgers, J. Wang, Y. Zhang et al., “Association of tubal factor infertility with elevated antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis caseinolytic protease P,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 203, no. 5, pp. 494.e7–494.e14, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Sarapik, K. Haller-Kikkatalo, M. Utt, K. Teesalu, A. Salumets, and R. Uibo, “Serum anti-endometrial antibodies in infertile women—potential risk factor for implantation failure,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 349–357, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. B. Goldman and D. W. Cramer, “The epidemiology of endometriosis,” Progress in Clinical and Biological Research, vol. 323, pp. 15–31, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. M. Wheeler, “Epidemiology of endometriosis-associated infertility,” The Journal of Reproductive Medicine, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 41–46, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Vassiliadis, K. Relakis, A. Papageorgiou, and I. Athanassakis, “Endometriosis and infertility: a multi-cytokine imbalance versus ovulation, fertilization and early embryo development,” Clinical & Developmental Immunology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 125–129, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. I. Lebovic, M. D. Mueller, and R. N. Taylor, “Immunobiology of endometriosis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. G. A. Lang and G. R. Yeaman, “Autoantibodies in endometriosis sera recognize a Thomsen-Friedenreich-like carbohydrate antigen,” Journal of Autoimmunity, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 151–161, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. P. Mathur, J. H. Lee, H. Jiang, P. Arnaud, and P. F. Rust, “Levels of transferrin and alpha 2-HS glycoprotein in women with and without endometriosis,” Autoimmunity, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 121–127, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Mathur, M. R. Peress, and H. O. Williamson, “Autoimmunity to endometrium and ovary in endometriosis,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 259–266, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. Z. Ulcová-Gallová, V. Bouše, L. Švábek, J. Turek, and Z. Rokyta, “Endometriosis in reproductive immunology,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 269–274, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. E. R. Barnea, T. R. Holford, and D. R. McInnes, “Long-term prognosis of infertile couples with normal basic investigations: a life-table analysis,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 24–26, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. A. Templeton and G. C. Penney, “The incidence, characteristics, and prognosis of patients whose infertility is unexplained,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 175–182, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. Altmäe, J. A. Martínez-Conejero, A. Salumets et al., “Endometrial gene expression analysis at the time of embryo implantation in women with unexplained infertility,” Molecular Human Reproduction, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 178–187, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. S. Altmäe, A. Salumets, K. Bjuresten et al., “Tissue factor and tissue factor pathway inhibitors TFPI and TFPI2 in human secretory endometrium-possible link to female infertility,” Reproductive Sciences, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 666–678, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. S. Altmäe, A. Stavreus-Evers, J. R. Ruiz et al., “Variations in folate pathway genes are associated with unexplained female infertility,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 130–137, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. K. Haller, A. Sarapik, I. Talja, A. Salumets, and R. Uibo, “Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation changes the prevalence of serum autoantibodies in in vitro fertilization patients,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 56, no. 5-6, pp. 364–370, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. J. Jasper, K. P. Tremellen, and S. A. Robertson, “Primary unexplained infertility is associated with reduced expression of the T-regulatory cell transcription factor Foxp3 in endometrial tissue,” Molecular Human Reproduction, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 301–308, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. P. Monteleone, D. Parrini, P. Faviana et al., “Female infertility related to thyroid autoimmunity: the ovarian follicle hypothesis,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 108–114, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. K. Poppe and B. Velkeniers, “Thyroid and infertility,” Verhandelingen—Koninklijke Academie voor Geneeskunde van Belgie, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 389–399, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. L. Putowski, D. Darmochwal-Kolarz, J. Rolinski, J. Oleszczuk, and J. Jakowicki, “The immunological profile of infertile women after repeated IVF failure (preliminary study),” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 192–196, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. E. Geva, G. Fait, L. Lerner-Geva et al., “The possible role of antiovary antibodies in repeated in vitro fertilization failures,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 292–296, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. C. Battaglia, L. Sgarbi, M. Salvatori, N. Maxia, A. Gallinelli, and A. Volpe, “Increased anticardiolipin antibodies are positively related to the uterine artery pulsatility index in unexplained infertility,” Human Reproduction, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 3487–3491, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. P. Mathur, “Autoimmunity in endometriosis: relevance to infertility,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 89–95, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. W. P. Dmowski, N. Rana, J. Michalowska, J. Friberg, C. Papierniak, and A. El-Roeiy, “The effect of endometriosis, its stage and activity, and of autoantibodies on in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer success rates,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 555–562, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. N. Gleicher, A. El-Roeiy, E. Confino, and J. Friberg, “Reproductive failure because of autoantibodies: unexplained infertility and pregnancy wastage,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 160, no. 6, pp. 1376–1380, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. Luborsky, “Ovarian autoimmune disease and ovarian autoantibodies,” Journal of Women's Health and Gender-Based Medicine, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 585–599, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. N. J. Wheatcroft, A. A. Toogood, T. C. Li, I. D. Cooke, and A. P. Weetman, “Detection of antibodies to ovarian antigens in women with premature ovarian failure,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 122–128, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. Arif, S. Vallian, F. Farzaneh et al., “Identification of 3 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase as a novel target of steroid cell autoantibodies: association of autoantibodies with endocrine autoimmune disease,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 81, no. 12, pp. 4439–4445, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. Y. Reznik, A. Benhaïm, R. Morello, M. Herlicoviez, J. J. Ballet, and J. Mahoudeau, “High frequency of IgG antagonizing follicle-stimulating hormone- stimulated steroidogenesis in infertile women with a good response to exogenous gonadotropins,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 46–52, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. B. Gobert, C. Jolivet-Reynaud, P. Dalbon et al., “An immunoreactive peptide of the FSH involved in autoimmune infertility,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 289, no. 4, pp. 819–824, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. W. R. Meyer, G. Lavy, A. H. DeCherney, I. Visintin, K. Economy, and J. L. Luborsky, “Evidence of gonadal and gonadotropin antibodies in women with a suboptimal ovarian response to exogenous gonadotropin,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 795–799, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. K. Haller, A. Salumets, M. Grigorova et al., “Putative predictors of antibodies against follicle-stimulating hormone in female infertility: a study based on in vitro fertilization patients,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 193–200, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. K. Haller, A. Sikut, H. Karro, R. Uibo, and A. Salumets, “Circulating anti-follicle-stimulating hormone immunoglobulin A in women: a sperm-prone reaction of mucosal tolerance?” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 1253–1255, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. K. Haller, C. Mathieu, K. Rull, K. Matt, M. C. Béné, and R. Uibo, “IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against FSH: serological markers of pathogenic autoimmunity or of normal immunoregulation?” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 262–269, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. B. Vallotton and A. P. Forbes, “Antibodies to cytoplasm of ova,” Lancet, vol. 2, no. 7457, pp. 264–265, 1966. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. S. Chen, J. Sawicka, C. Betterle et al., “Autoantibodies to steroidogenic enzymes in autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, Addison's disease, and premature ovarian failure,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 1871–1876, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. P. Peterson, R. Uibo, J. Peränen, and K. Krohn, “Immunoprecipitation of steroidogenic enzyme autoantigens with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I (APS I) sera; further evidence for independent humoral immunity to P450c17 and P450c21,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 335–340, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. K. Reimand, P. Peterson, H. Hyöty et al., “3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase autoantibodies are rare in premature ovarian failure,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 2324–2326, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. R. Uibo, E. Aavik, P. Peterson et al., “Autoantibodies to cytochrome P450 enzymes P450scc, P450c17, and P450c21 in autoimmune polyglandular disease types I and II and in isolated Addison's disease,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 323–328, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. S. L. Edassery, S. V. Shatavi, J. P. Kunkel et al., “Autoantigens in ovarian autoimmunity associated with unexplained infertility and premature ovarian failure,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 94, no. 7, pp. 2636–2641, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. E. S. Pires and V. V. Khole, “A block in the road to fertility: autoantibodies to heat-shock protein 90-β in human ovarian autoimmunity,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 1395–1409, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. V. Sundblad, L. Bussmann, V. A. Chiauzzi, V. Pancholi, and E. H. Charreau, “α-enolase: a novel autoantigen in patients with premature ovarian failure,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 745–751, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. H. Moncayo, R. Moncayo, R. Benz, A. Wolf, and C. Lauritzen, “Ovarian failure and autoimmunity. Detection of autoantibodies directed against both the unoccupied luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin receptor and the hormone-receptor complex of ovine corpus luteum,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 1857–1865, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. V. Chiauzzi, S. Cigorraga, M. E. Escobar, M. A. Rivarola, and E. H. Charreau, “Inhibition of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor binding by circulating immunoglobulins,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 1221–1228, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. K. M. Fox, J. A. Dias, and P. van Roey, “Three-dimensional structure of human follicle-stimulating hormone,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 378–389, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. W. E. Westhoff, J. W. Slootstra, W. C. Puijk et al., “Detection of epitopes on follicle-stimulating hormone and FSH-antiserum-induced suppression of bioactivity of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone,” Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 30, no. 2-3, pp. 133–149, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. L. M. Rubinstein, A. F. Parlow, C. Derzko, and J. Hershman, “Pituitary gonadotropin response to LHRH in human pregnancy,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 172–175, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. A. P. N. Themmen and I. T. Huhtaniemi, “Mutations of gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors: elucidating the physiology and pathophysiology of pituitary-gonadal function,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 551–583, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. F. H. Thomas and B. C. Vanderhyden, “Oocyte-granulosa cell interactions during mouse follicular development: regulation of kit ligand expression and its role in oocyte growth,” Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, vol. 4, article 19, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. P. G. Knight and C. Glister, “TGF-β superfamily members and ovarian follicle development,” Reproduction, vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 191–206, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. I. T. Huhtaniemi and K. Aittomäki, “Mutations of follicle-stimulating hormone and its receptor: effects on gonadal function,” European Journal of Endocrinology/European Federation of Endocrine Societies, vol. 138, no. 5, pp. 473–481, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  93. J. Levallet, P. Pakarinen, and I. T. Huhtaniemi, “Follicle-stimulating hormone ligand and receptor mutations, and gonadal dysfunction,” Archives of Medical Research, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 486–494, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. A. Ulloa-Aguirre and C. Timossi, “Structure-function relationship of follicle-stimulating hormone and its receptor,” Human Reproduction Update, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 260–283, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. M. Grigorova, K. Rull, and M. Laan, “Haplotype structure of FSHB, the beta-subunit gene for fertility-associated follicle-stimulating hormone: possible influence of balancing selection,” Annals of Human Genetics, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 18–28, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. J. W. Thomas, “Antigen-specific responses in autoimmunity and tolerance,” Immunologic Research, vol. 23, no. 2-3, pp. 235–244, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. L. L. Espey, “Current status of the hypothesis that mammalian ovulation is comparable to an inflammatory reaction,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 233–238, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. S. Kõks, A. Velthut, A. Sarapik, S. Altmäe et al., “The differential transcriptome and ontology profiles of floating and cumulus granulosa cells in stimulated human antral follicles,” Molecular Human Reproduction, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 229–240, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. J. S. Richards, D. L. Russell, S. Ochsner, and L. L. Espey, “Ovulation: new dimensions and new regulators of the inflammatory-like response,” Annual Review of Physiology, vol. 64, pp. 69–92, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. M. Shimada, I. Hernandez-Gonzalez, I. Gonzalez-Robanya, and J. S. Richards, “Induced expression of pattern recognition receptors in cumulus oocyte complexes: novel evidence for innate immune-like functions during ovulation,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 3228–3239, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. C. J. Binder and G. J. Silverman, “Natural antibodies and the autoimmunity of atherosclerosis,” Springer Seminars in Immunopathology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 385–404, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. R. Luboshitzky, M. Kaplan-Zverling, Z. Shen-Orr, R. Nave, and P. Herer, “Seminal plasma androgen/oestrogen balance in infertile men,” International Journal of Andrology, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 345–351, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. U. C. Hegde, S. Ranpura, S. D'Souza, and V. P. Raghavan, “Immunoregulatory pathways in pregnancy,” Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 207–219, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. S. A. Robertson, J. J. Bromfield, and K. P. Tremellen, “Seminal “priming” for protection from pre-eclampsia—a unifying hypothesis,” Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 253–265, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. R. Ochsenkühn, A. E. O'Connor, J. J. Hirst, H. W. Gordon Baker, D. M. de Kretser, and M. P. Hedger, “The relationship between immunosuppressive activity and immunoregulatory cytokines in seminal plasma: influence of sperm autoimmunity and seminal leukocytes,” Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 57–74, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  106. S. A. Robertson, W. V. Ingman, S. O'Leary, D. J. Sharkey, and K. P. Tremellen, “Transforming growth factor β—a mediator of immune deviation in seminal plasma,” Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 57, no. 1-2, pp. 109–128, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. B. Loras, F. Vételé, A. El Malki, J. Rollet, J. C. Soufir, and M. Benahmed, “Seminal transforming growth factor-β in normal and infertile men,” Human Reproduction, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1534–1539, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. Y. Tsuji, M. Mitsuo, R. Yasunami, K. Sakata, H. Shibahara, and K. Koyama, “HLA-DR and HLA-DQ gene typing of infertile women possessing sperm-immobilizing antibody,” Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 31–38, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. D. Dimitrova, S. Kalaydjiev, A. Mendizova, E. Piryova, and L. Nakov, “Circulating antibodies to human spermatozoa in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 1533–1535, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. R. K. Naz, K. Ahmad, and A. C. Menge, “Antiidiotypic antibodies to sperm in sera of fertile women that neutralize antisperm antibodies,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 2331–2338, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. N. Gleicher, “Autoantibodies in normal and abnormal pregnancy,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 28, no. 3-4, pp. 269–273, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. G. E. Eroglu and E. Scopelitis, “Antinuclear and antiphospholipid antibodies in healthy women with recurrent spontaneous abortion,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. E. Geva, N. Vardinon, J. B. Lessing et al., “Organ-specific autoantibodies are possible markers for reproductive failure: a prospective study in an in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer programme,” Human Reproduction, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1627–1631, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. K. Haller, A. Salumets, and R. Uibo, “Anti-FSH antibodies associate with poor outcome of ovarian stimulation in IVF,” Reproductive BioMedicine Online, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 350–355, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. N. G. Morgenthaler, S. C. Ho, and W. B. Minich, “Stimulating and blocking thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor autoantibodies from patients with Graves' disease and autoimmune hypothyroidism have very similar concentration, TSH receptor affinity, and binding sites,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 1058–1065, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. S. V. Shatavi, B. Llanes, and J. L. Luborsky, “Association of unexplained infertility with gonadotropin and ovarian antibodies,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 56, no. 5-6, pp. 286–291, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. G. L. Warren, L. O'Farrell, K. R. Rogers, K. M. Billings, S. P. Sayers, and P. M. Clarkson, “CK-MM autoantibodies: prevalence, immune complexes, and effect on CK clearance,” Muscle & Nerve, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 335–346, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. I. Kligman and Z. Rosenwaks, “Differentiating clinical profiles: predicting good responders, poor responders, and hyperresponders,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 1185–1190, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. M. Cutolo, A. Sulli, S. Capellino et al., “Sex hormones influence on the immune system: basic and clinical aspects in autoimmunity,” Lupus, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 635–638, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. F. Tanriverdi, L. F. Silveira, G. S. MacColl, and P. M. Bouloux, “The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis: immune function and autoimmunity,” The Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 176, no. 3, pp. 293–304, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. M. Narayanan, P. S. Murthy, S. A. Munaf, L. C. Shah, and M. D. Kini, “Antiovarian antibodies and their effect on the outcome of assisted reproduction,” Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 599–605, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. K. A. Hess, L. Chen, and W. J. Larsen, “The ovarian blood follicle barrier is both charge- and size-selective in mice,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 705–711, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. G. N. Clarke, C. Hsieh, S. H. Koh, and M. N. Cauchi, “Sperm antibodies, immunoglobulins, and complement in human follicular fluid,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 179–181, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. C. Glister, N. P. Groome, and P. G. Knight, “Bovine follicle development is associated with divergent changes in activin-A, inhibin-A and follistatin and the relative abundance of different follistatin isoforms in follicular fluid,” The Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 188, no. 2, pp. 215–225, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. G. Lambert-Messerlian, A. Taylor, L. Leykin et al., “Characterization of intrafollicular steroid hormones, inhibin, and follistatin in women with and without polycystic ovarian syndrome following gonadotropin hyperstimulation,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1211–1216, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. A. M. Hussein and F. J. Bourne, “Immunoglobulin concentrations in pig follicular fluid,” International Journal of Fertility, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 54–57, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. T. Forges, P. Monnier-Barbarino, F. Guillet-May, G. C. Faure, and M. C. Béné, “Corticosteroids in patients with antiovarian antibodies undergoing in vitro fertilization: a prospective pilot study,” European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 699–705, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. A. Turi, S. R. Giannubilo, S. Zanconi, A. Mascetti, and A. L. Tranquilli, “Preconception steroid treatment in infertile women with antithyroid autoimmunity undergoing ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination: a double-blind, randomized, prospective cohort study,” Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 32, no. 14, pp. 2415–2421, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  129. E. S. Pires, F. R. Parikh, P. V. Mande, S. A. Uttamchandani, S. Savkar, and V. V. Khole, “Can anti-ovarian antibody testing be useful in an IVF-ET clinic?” Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 55–64, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus