Table 2: List of glioblastoma-associated antigens (GAAs).

GAAsCharacteristic/potential functionReferences

*AIM2: absent in melanoma 2AIM-2 could be used as a tumor antigen target for monitoring vaccine trials or for developing antigen-specific active immunotherapy for glioma patients.[90, 9698]
*BMI1: BMI1 polycomb ring finger oncogeneExpressed in human GBM tumors and highly enriched in CD133+ GSC cells.[99]
*COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2Overexpressed in many tumors including CD133+ GSC cells, COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib will become a nice weapon for GBM therapy.[100]
*TRP-2: tyrosinase related protein 2Highly expressed in GSCs.[89, 97, 98]
*GP100: glycoprotein 100Melanocyte lineage-specific antigen, expressed in GSCs as well.[89, 98]
*EGFRvIII: epidermal growth factor receptor variant IIIEGFRvIII is the most prevalent of several EGFR mutations found in human gliomas and is expressed in 20–25% of GBM. GSC-associated antigen.[79, 89, 98]
*EZH2: enhancer of zeste homolog 2Upregulated in malignant gliomas and in GSC cells.[97, 101]
*LICAM: human L1 cell adhesion moleculeHighly expressed in GSCs. Invasion-associated proteins.[102]
*Livin and LivinβThe expression of livin and livinβ in CD133+ U251 stem-like cells was much higher than that in cancer cells, Livinβ was more related with the high survival rate. It is a cancer-associated member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP).[103]
*MRP-3: multidrug-resistance protein 3,GBMs overexpress MRP3 at both mRNA and protein levels. Multidrug-resistance protein 3, potential correlation with survival. Highly expressed in GSC cells as well.[97, 98, 104]
*NestinNestin plays important roles in cell growth, migration, invasion, and adhesion to extracellular matrices in glioma cells. Overexpressed in GSCs.[105]
*OLIG2: oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2GSC marker, OLIG2 is highly expressed in all diffuse gliomas. Immunohistochemistry and microarray analyses demonstrated higher OLIG2 in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas versus glioblastomas, which are heterogeneous with respect to OLIG2 levels.[106]
*SOX2: SRY-related HMG-box 2SOX2 expression and amplification in gliomas and GSC cell lines.[98, 107]
ART1: antigen recognized by T cells 1 Pediatric GBM express ART1, ART4, SART1, SART2, and SART3, they were identified within glioblastoma cell lines as well.[92, 97]
ART4: antigen recognized by T cells 4
SART1: squamous cell carcinoma antigen recognized by T cells 1
SART2: squamous cell carcinoma antigen recognized by T cells 2
SART3: squamous cell carcinoma antigen recognized by T cells 3
B-cyclinOverexpressed in GBM.[97, 108]
β-cateninβ-catenin and Gli1 are prognostic markers in GBM.[109]
Gli1: glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1Gli1 is correlated with glioma recurrence after chemotherapy, Gli1 plays a dominant role in chemoresistance of glioma cells. located in nuclear, might be fluctuating between the cytoplasm and the nucleus.[109, 110]
Cav-1: caveolin-1Expressed in most HGG, correlated with proliferation and invasive potential of tumor.[111]
Cathepsin BOverexpression of cathepsin B during the progression of human gliomas.[112]
CD74: cluster of Differentiation 74Contribute to TMZ resistance. Also known as HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain.[113]
E-cadherin: epithelial calcium-dependent adhesionExpression in gliomas correlated with an unfavorable clinic outcome.[114]
EphA2/Eck: EPH receptor A2/epithelial cell kinaseOverexpressed in both pediatric and adult GBM. Used as a novel target for glioma vaccines.[90, 97, 115]
Fra-1/Fosl 1: fos-related antigen 1Plays an important role in maintenance/progression of various cancers, including GBM. Highly expressed in pediatric GBM.[97, 116]
GAGE-1: G antigen 1A potential target for specific immunotherapy and diagnostic markers in high-grade brain tumors.[93]
Ganglioside/GD2Expressed in astrocytic tumors.[117]
GnT-V, β1,6-N: acetylglucosaminyltransferase-VPlays an important role in regulating invasivity of human glioma.[97, 118]
Her2/neu: human epidermal growth factor receptor 2A tumor-associated antigen that is expressed by up to 80% of GBMs but not by normal postnatal neurons or glia.[97, 98]
Ki67: nuclear proliferation-associatedantigen of antibody Ki67Prognostic marker for glioma, especially for the lower grades.[79]
Ku70/80: human Ku heterodimer proteins subunits (molecular weight: 70 kDa/80 kDa)A therapeutic potential target antigen. Highly expressed in GBM.[119]
IL-13Rα2: interleukin-13 receptor subunit alpha-2Overexpressed in GBM but diminished in several GSC cell lines.[89, 97, 98]
MAGE-A: melanoma-associated antigen 1MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, and NY-ESO-1 can be upregulated in neuroblastoma cells to facilitate cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated tumor cell killing.
MAGE-A3: melanoma-associated antigen 3[94]
NY-ESO-1: New York oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1
MART-1: melanoma antigen recognized by T-cellsMelanoma antigen also associated with glioma.[95]
PROX1: prospero homeobox protein 1Strongly express in GBM, frequently coexpress early neuronal proteins MAP2 and betaIII-tubulin but not the mature neuronal marker NeuN.[120]
PSCA: prostate stem cell antigenGPI-anchored cell surface protein, represented as a novel GAA.[121]
SOX10: SRY-related HMG-box 10The SOX10 expression was restricted to gliomas and melanomas. All glioma types expressed SOX10, and tumors of low-grade glioma had a much broader distribution of SOX10 compared with high-grade gliomas.[122]
SOX11: SRY-related HMG-box 11The transcription factor SOX11 highly specific overexpression of in human malignant gliomas.[87, 97]
SurvivinQuantitatively determined survivin expression levels are of prognostic value in human gliomas.[79, 97]
UPAR: urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptorUPAR and Cathepsin B, known to be overexpressed in high-grade gliomas and strongly correlated with invasive cancer phenotypes.[123]
WT-1: Wilms’ tumor protein 1A transcription factor overexpressed in glioma.[91]

*: Glioblastoma stem cell (GSC) associated antigens as potential targets for immunotherapy.