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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 768789, 8 pages
Review Article

Antigen-Specific T Cells and Cytokines Detection as Useful Tool for Understanding Immunity against Zoonotic Infections

1Dipartimento di Biopatologia e Biotecnologie Mediche e Forensi (DiBiMeF), Università di Palermo, Corso Tukory 211, 90134 Palermo, Italy
2Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia, Via Gino Marinuzzi 3, 90129 Palermo, Italy

Received 12 July 2011; Revised 4 November 2011; Accepted 7 November 2011

Academic Editor: Antonio Cascio

Copyright © 2012 Annalisa Agnone et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Zoonoses include a broad range of diseases, that are becoming of great interest, due to the climate changing, that cause the adaptation of vectors to new niches and environments. Host immune responses play a crucial role in determining the outcome of infections, as documented by expansion of antigen-specific T cells during several zoonotic infections. Thus, understanding of the contribution of antigen-specific T-cell subsets in the host immune response is a powerful tool to evaluate the different immunological mechanisms involved in zoonotic infections and for the development of effective vaccines. In this paper we discuss the role of T cells in some eukaryotic and prokaryotic infectious models.