Table 1: Genetic and genital mucosa host factors associated with resistance to HIV-1 infection in several HESN cohorts.

HIV-resistant host factors
Genetic Genital mucosa

KIR3D L1/S1 [59]Protease inhibitors (SLPI, lactoferrin, serpins, cystatins, trappin-2/elafin) [2, 8487]
KIR2D L2/L3 [60]
HLA class 1 alleles [6165] Defensins ( ) [2]
IRF-1 [66]CC- chemokines [9, 79, 80]
TLR 9 [67]APOBEC3G, TRIM5 , tetherin, SAMHD1, LEDGF/p75 [8183]
CCR5 32 [6876]Elevated DC and NK cell frequencies/activities [58]
CCR2b [77, 78]CD4+- and CD8+-specific immune responses and reduced T-cell
MIP-1 [79]activation [2, 8897]
MIP-1 [80]
Cross-clade neutralizing specific IgA (transcytosis inhibition and
ADCC activities) [2, 8894, 98, 99]

ADCC: antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity; APOBEC: apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide-like; CTL: cytotoxic T lymphocyte; DC: dendritic cell; HESN: highly-exposed HIV-seronegative; HLA: human leucocyte antigen; IRF: interferon-regulating factor; KIR: killing inhibitory receptor; LEDGF: Lens epithelium-derived growth factor; MIP: macrophage inflammatory protein; NK: natural killer; SAMHD: sterile alpha motif and HD domain; SLPI: secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor; TLR: Toll-like receptor; TRIM: tripartite motif.