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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 974067, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/974067
Clinical Study

Immune Modulation in Primary Vaccinia virus Zoonotic Human Infections

1Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Avenida Antônio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
2Instituto René Rachou (IRR), Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Avenida Augusto de Lima 1715, 30190-002 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
3Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Avenida Antônio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
4Departamento de Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP), Avendia Brigadeiro Faria Lima 5416, 15090-000 São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil

Received 12 July 2011; Revised 16 September 2011; Accepted 17 September 2011

Academic Editor: Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales

Copyright © 2012 Juliana Assis Silva Gomes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In 2010, the WHO celebrated the 30th anniversary of the smallpox eradication. Ironically, infections caused by viruses related to smallpox are being increasingly reported worldwide, including Monkeypox, Cowpox, and Vaccinia virus (VACV). Little is known about the human immunological responses elicited during acute infections caused by orthopoxviruses. We have followed VACV zoonotic outbreaks taking place in Brazil and analyzed cellular immune responses in patients acutely infected by VACV. Results indicated that these patients show a biased immune modulation when compared to noninfected controls. Amounts of B cells are low and less activated in infected patients. Although present, T CD4+ cells are also less activated when compared to noninfected individuals, and so are monocytes/macrophages. Similar results were obtained when Balb/C mice were experimentally infected with a VACV sample isolated during the zoonotic outbreaks. Taking together, the data suggest that zoonotic VACVs modulate specific immune cell compartments during an acute infection in humans.