Immune Modulation in Primary Vaccinia virus Zoonotic Human Infections
Phylogenetic relationships between the VACV samples obtained in this study and other relevant poxviruses. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by the Neighbor-joining method and used hemagglutinin gene nucleotide sequences from various orthopoxviruses, including Brazilian Vaccinia virus (VACV) isolates and other poxviruses. The Tamura3-parameter nucleotide substitution model was used and the reliability of the branching patterns was tested by 1000 bootstrap pseudo-replicates. Bootstrap values above 70% are shown. The scale bar represents 1% nucleotide sequence divergence. Samples are as follows: Zoonotic Brazilian Vaccinia virus isolated from humans (VACV-Br-Hu-1, VACV-Br-Hu-2) or cattle (VACV-Br-An-1, VACV-Br-An-2, VACV-Br-An-3)—labeled with stars (*); other Vaccinia virus strains isolated in Brazil—Passatempo (VACV-PSTV), Cantagalo (VACV-CTGV), Araçatuba (VACV-ARAV), Guarani P2 (VACV-GP2V) (DQ206437), Muriaé (VACV-MURV), VACV-BeAn58058, Belo Horizonte (VACV-VBH), VACV-SPAn232, Guarani P1 (VACV-GP1V); reference Vaccinia virus strains—Western Reserve (VACV-WR), VACV-Lister, Modified virus Ankara (VACV-MVA), Copenhagen (VACV-COP), VACV-Wyeth, VACV-TTan, VACV-Malbran, Lister Butantan (VACV-LTBUT); VACV-IOC (AF229248), Buffalopox virus (BFPV-3906) (AF375077); other Orthopoxviruses—Cowpox virus Brighton Red (CPXV-BR), Rabbitpox virus rev (RBPV-rev), Ectromelia virus Moscow (ECTV), Camelpox virus CMS (CMLV-CMS), Camelpox virus M-96 (CMLV-M96), Variola virus Garcia-1966 (VARV-GAR), and Variola virus Bangladesh-1975 (VARV-BSH).
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