Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 589423, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/589423
Research Article

Overexpression of HIF-2α, TWIST, and CXCR4 Is Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, 1 Yixueyuan Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400016, China
2Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
3Department of Pathology, Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
4Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong

Received 15 July 2013; Revised 6 September 2013; Accepted 9 September 2013

Academic Editor: Nejat Egilmez

Copyright © 2013 Ni Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. I. D. Hay, G. B. Thompson, C. S. Grant et al., “Papillary thyroid carcinoma managed at the Mayo Clinic during six decades (1940–1999): temporal trends in initial therapy and long-term outcome in 2444 consecutively treated patients,” World Journal of Surgery, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 879–885, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. L. Harris, “Hypoxia: a key regulatory factor in tumour growth,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 38–47, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. X. Lu and Y. Kang, “Hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factors: master regulators of metastasis,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 16, no. 24, pp. 5928–5935, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. D. Gordan and M. C. Simon, “Hypoxia-inducible factors: central regulators of the tumor phenotype,” Current Opinion in Genetics and Development, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 71–77, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. Keith, R. S. Johnson, and M. C. Simon, “HIF1α and HIF2α: sibling rivalry in hypoxic tumour growth and progression,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 9–22, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. Qing and M. C. Simon, “Hypoxia inducible factor-2α: a critical mediator of aggressive tumor phenotypes,” Current Opinion in Genetics and Development, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 60–66, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. H. Gort, G. Van Haaften, I. Verlaan et al., “The TWIST1 oncogene is a direct target of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α,” Oncogene, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 1501–1510, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. Z. Imtiyaz, E. P. Williams, M. M. Hickey et al., “Hypoxia-inducible factor 2α regulates macrophage function in mouse models of acute and tumor inflammation,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 120, no. 8, pp. 2699–2714, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. Jin, H. Ji, C. Jia et al., “Synergistic antitumor effects of endostar in combination with oxaliplatin via inhibition of HIF and CXCR4 in the colorectal cell line SW1116,” PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 10, Article ID e47161, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  10. J. Yang, S. A. Mani, J. L. Donaher et al., “Twist, a master regulator of morphogenesis, plays an essential role in tumor metastasis,” Cell, vol. 117, no. 7, pp. 927–939, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Q. Qin, Y. Xu, T. He, C. Qin, and J. Xu, “Normal and disease-related biological functions of Twist1 and underlying molecular mechanisms,” Cell Research, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 90–106, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. A. Mani, W. Guo, M. Liao et al., “The epithelial-mesenchymal transition generates cells with properties of stem cells,” Cell, vol. 133, no. 4, pp. 704–715, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Zlotnik, “Chemokines and cancer,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 119, no. 9, pp. 2026–2029, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in organ-specific metastasis,” Contributions to Microbiology, vol. 13, pp. 191–199, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. P. Spano, F. Andre, L. Morat et al., “Chemokine receptor CXCR4 and early-stage non-small cell lung cancer: pattern of expression and correlation with outcome,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 613–617, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. O. Salvucci, A. Bouchard, A. Baccarelli et al., “The role of CXCR4 receptor expression in breast cancer: a large tissue microarray study,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 275–283, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. Akashi, K. Koizumi, K. Tsuneyama, I. Saiki, Y. Takano, and H. Fuse, “Chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression and prognosis in patients with metastatic prostate cancer,” Cancer Science, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 539–542, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Kim, H. Takeuchi, S. T. Lam et al., “Chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression in colorectal cancer patients increases the risk for recurrence and for poor survival,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 2744–2753, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. D. Castellone, V. Guarino, V. De Falco et al., “Functional expression of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor is induced by RET/PTC oncogenes and is a common event in human papillary thyroid carcinomas,” Oncogene, vol. 23, no. 35, pp. 5958–5967, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. H. Lang, C. Lo, W. Chan, K. Lam, and K. Wan, “Staging systems for papillary thyroid carcinoma: a review and comparison,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 245, no. 3, pp. 366–378, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Kononen, L. Bubendorf, A. Kallioniemi et al., “Tissue microarrays for high-throughput molecular profiling of tumor specimens,” Nature Medicine, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 844–847, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. J. Livak and T. D. Schmittgen, “Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2-ΔΔCT method,” Methods, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 402–408, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. R. Raval, K. W. Lau, M. G. B. Tran et al., “Contrasting properties of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and HIF-2 in von Hippel-Lindau-associated renal cell carcinoma,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 25, no. 13, pp. 5675–5686, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Giatromanolaki, M. I. Koukourakis, E. Sivridis et al., “Relation of hypoxia inducible factor 1α and 2α in operable non-small cell lung cancer to angiogenic/molecular profile of tumours and survival,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 881–890, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. Holmquist-Mengelbier, E. Fredlund, T. Löfstedt et al., “Recruitment of HIF-1α and HIF-2α to common target genes is differentially regulated in neuroblastoma: HIF-2α promotes an aggressive phenotype,” Cancer Cell, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 413–423, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus