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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013, Article ID 698634, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/698634
Research Article

Chronic Deep Brain Stimulation of the Hypothalamic Nucleus in Wistar Rats Alters Circulatory Levels of Corticosterone and Proinflammatory Cytokines

1Laboratory of Neuroimmunoendocrinology, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “Manuel Velasco Suárez”, Avenida Insurgentes Sur 3877, La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
2Laboratory of Reticular Formation Physiology, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “Manuel Velasco Suárez”, Avenida Insurgentes Sur 3877, La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
3Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, P.O. Box 70-297, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
4Department of Psychoimmunology, National Institute of Psychiatry “Ramón de la Fuente”, Calzada México-Xochimilco 101, Col. San Lorenzo Huipulco, Tlalpan, 14370 Mexico City, DF, Mexico

Received 20 July 2013; Revised 4 September 2013; Accepted 5 September 2013

Academic Editor: Oscar Bottasso

Copyright © 2013 Juan Manuel Calleja-Castillo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a therapeutic option for several diseases, but its effects on HPA axis activity and systemic inflammation are unknown. This study aimed to detect circulatory variations of corticosterone and cytokines levels in Wistar rats, after 21 days of DBS-at the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMHvl), unilateral cervical vagotomy (UCVgX), or UCVgX plus DBS. We included the respective control (C) and sham (S) groups ( rats per group). DBS treated rats had higher levels of TNF- (120%; ) and IFN- (305%; ) but lower corticosterone concentration (48%; ) than C and S. UCVgX animals showed increased corticosterone levels (154%; ) versus C and S. UCVgX plus DBS increased IL-1 (402%; ), IL-6 (160%; ), and corsticosterone (178%; versus 48%; ) compared with the C and S groups. Chronic DBS at VMHvl induced a systemic inflammatory response accompanied by a decrease of HPA axis function. UCVgX rats experienced HPA axis hyperactivity as result of vagus nerve injury; however, DBS was unable to block the HPA axis hyperactivity induced by unilateral cervical vagotomy. Further studies are necessary to explore these findings and their clinical implication.