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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 234316, 5 pages
Research Article

Proatherogenic Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein/2-Glycoprotein I Complexes in Arterial and Venous Disease

1Department of Medicine, Divisions of Cardiology and Hematology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
2Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
3Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, South Bend, IN 46634, USA
4Medical Department, Corgenix, Inc., 11575 Main Street, No. 400, Broomfield, CO 80020, USA

Received 10 August 2014; Revised 6 October 2014; Accepted 6 October 2014; Published 28 October 2014

Academic Editor: Xiao-Feng Yang

Copyright © 2014 Jeffrey S. Berger et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


OxLDL/2GPI complexes have been implicated in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and associated with disease severity and adverse outcomes. We investigate the significance of anti-oxLDL/2GPI antibodies and oxLDL/2GPI complexes in patients with arterial and idiopathic venous disease. A cohort of 61 arterial disease patients, 32 idiopathic venous disease patients, and 53 healthy controls was studied. Because statins influence oxLDL/2GPI, these complexes were analyzed on subjects not taking statins. Arterial and venous groups expressed higher levels of IgG anti-oxLDL/2GPI antibodies than controls without any other significant clinical association. OxLDL/2GPI complexes were significantly elevated in arterial (0.69 U/mL, ) and venous disease (0.54 U/mL, ) than controls (0.39 U/mL). Among arterial diseases, oxLDL/β2GPI was 0.85 U/mL for carotid artery disease, 0.72 U/mL for peripheral artery disease, and 0.52 U/mL for abdominal aortic aneurysm. There was a significant association with male gender, age, hypertension, and history of thrombosis. Subjects with oxLDL/β2GPI above the median (0.25 U/mL) were more likely to have arterial (OR 4.5, ) or venous disease (OR 4.1, ). Multivariate regression indicated that males (), high cholesterol (), and carotid disease () were significant predictors of oxLDL/β2GPI. The coexistence of oxLDL/2GPI in arterial and venous disease may suggest a common oxidative mechanism that independently predicts carotid artery disease.