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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 318250, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/318250
Research Article

The Robust and Modulated Biomarker Network Elicited by the Plasmodium vivax Infection Is Mainly Mediated by the IL-6/IL-10 Axis and Is Associated with the Parasite Load

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Imunologia Básica e Aplicada, Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), 69077-000 Manaus, AM, Brazil
2Departamento de Ensino e Pesquisa, Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas (HEMOAM), 69050-001 Manaus, AM, Brazil
3Laboratório de Imunopatologia, Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), 30190-002 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
4Centro de Pesquisas Leônidas e Maria Deane, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), 69057-070 Manaus, AM, Brazil
5Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Coari, Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD), 69460-000 Coari, AM, Brazil
6Laboratório de Biomarcadores de Diagnóstico e Monitoração, Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), 30190-002 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Received 5 December 2013; Revised 20 January 2014; Accepted 30 January 2014; Published 18 March 2014

Academic Editor: Stephanie Lopes

Copyright © 2014 Allyson Guimarães da Costa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Recent studies have shown that the inflammatory process, including the biomarker production, and the intense activation of innate immune responses are greater in the malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax than other species. Here, we examined the levels of serum biomarkers and their interaction during acute malaria. Material and Methods. Blood samples were collected from P. vivax-infected patients at admission and from healthy donors. Levels of serum biomarkers were measured by Cytometric Bead Assay or ELISA. Results. P. vivax infection triggered the production of both inflammatory and regulatory biomarkers. Levels of IL-6, CXCL-8, IFN-γ, IL-5, and IL-10 were higher in P. vivax-infected patients than in healthy donors. On the other hand, malaria patients produced lower levels of TNF-α, IL-12p70, and IL-2 than healthy individuals. While the levels of IL-10 and IL-6 were found independent on the number of malaria episodes, higher levels of these cytokines were seen in patients with higher parasite load. Conclusion. A mixed pattern of proinflammatory and regulatory biomarkers is produced in P. vivax malaria. Analysis of biomarker network suggests that IL-10 and IL-6 are a robust axis in malaria patients and that this interaction seems to be associated with the parasite load.