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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 325938, 6 pages
Research Article

Antibodies to Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria in Young Children with Different Propensity to Develop Islet Autoimmunity

1Immunology Group, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
2Department of Pediatrics, University of Oulu, Kajaanintie 50, 90014 Oulu, Finland
3Children’s Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Tukholmankatu 8 A, 00029 Helsinki, Finland
4Department of Pediatrics, Tampere University Hospital, Teiskontie 35, 33521 Tampere, Finland
5Folkhälsan Research Center, Haartmansg 8, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
6Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland
7Immunogenetics Laboratory, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland
8University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
9Department of Microbiology, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
10Centre for Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia

Received 18 November 2013; Revised 16 January 2014; Accepted 20 January 2014; Published 4 March 2014

Academic Editor: Jacek Tabarkiewicz

Copyright © 2014 Ija Talja et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The intestinal microbiota is essential to the maturation and homeostasis of the immune system. Immunoblot assays were used to establish the prevalence of serum IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies specific for Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium longum, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG proteins in young children presenting with or without type 1 diabetes (T1D). We demonstrated that children between the ages of 6 and 12 months had a substantial increase in the frequency of IgG antibodies specific for L. rhamnosus GG proteins. We measured IgG, IgM, and IgA class antibody reactivity against B. adolescentis DSM 20083, B. adolescentis DSM 20086, and B. longum DSM 20088 proteins demonstrating significantly higher IgA responses against B. adolescentis DSM 20083 strain proteins in children who developed islet autoimmunity and T1D later in life. B. adolescentis strains showed more IgM type antibodies in children who developed T1D later in life, but the difference was not statistically significant. B. longum proteins were recognized by IgG and IgA antibodies to a higher extent compared to other bacteria studied. These results confirm that differences in immune reactivity against some commensal strains in young children may represent a different risk factor for developing T1D.