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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 473765, 10 pages
Research Article

Modulation of Circulating Cytokine-Chemokine Profile in Patients Affected by Chronic Venous Insufficiency Undergoing Surgical Hemodynamic Correction

1Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine and LTTA Centre, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 66, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
2Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo”, Via dell’Istria 65/01, 34137 Trieste, Italy
3Vascular Disease Center, University of Ferrara, Via Aldo Moro 8, 44124 Ferrara, Italy
4Department of Medical Sciences, Operative Unit of Clinica Medica, University Hospital of Ferrara, Via Aldo Moro 8, 44124 Ferrara, Italy

Received 23 January 2014; Revised 17 February 2014; Accepted 17 February 2014; Published 25 March 2014

Academic Editor: Jana Barlic-Dicen

Copyright © 2014 Veronica Tisato et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The expression of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines has been reported in in vitro/ex vivo settings of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), but the identification of circulating mediators that might be associated with altered hemodynamic forces or might represent innovative biomarkers is still missing. In this study, the circulating levels of 31 cytokines/chemokines involved in inflammatory/angiogenic processes were analysed in (i) CVI patients at baseline before surgical hemody namic correction, (ii) healthy subjects, and (iii) CVI patients after surgery. In a subgroup of CVI patients, in whom the baseline levels of cytokines/chemokines were analyzed in paired blood samples obtained from varicose vein and forearm vein, EGF, PDGF, and RANTES were increased at the varicose vein site as compared to the general circulation. Moreover, while at baseline, CVI patients showed increased levels of 14 cytokines/chemokines as compared to healthy subjects, 6 months after surgery, 11 cytokines/chemokines levels were significantly reduced in the treated CVI patients as compared to the CVI patients before surgery. Of note, a patient who exhibited recurrence of the disease 6 months after surgery, showed higher levels of EGF, PDGF, and RANTES compared to nonrecurrent patients, highlighting the potential role of the EGF/PDGF/RANTES triad as sensitive biomarkers in the context of CVI.