Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 636893, 9 pages
Review Article

Periodontitis as a Risk Factor of Atherosclerosis

Institute of Clinical and Experimental Dental Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Charles University, Karlovo Namesti 32, 12000 Prague, Czech Republic

Received 8 November 2013; Revised 29 January 2014; Accepted 17 February 2014; Published 23 March 2014

Academic Editor: Douglas C. Hooper

Copyright © 2014 Jirina Bartova et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Over the last two decades, the amount of evidence corroborating an association between dental plaque bacteria and coronary diseases that develop as a result of atherosclerosis has increased. These findings have brought a new aspect to the etiology of the disease. There are several mechanisms by which dental plaque bacteria may initiate or worsen atherosclerotic processes: activation of innate immunity, bacteremia related to dental treatment, and direct involvement of mediators activated by dental plaque and involvement of cytokines and heat shock proteins from dental plaque bacteria. There are common predisposing factors which influence both periodontitis and atherosclerosis. Both diseases can be initiated in early childhood, although the first symptoms may not appear until adulthood. The formation of lipid stripes has been reported in 10-year-old children and the increased prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a risk factor contributing to lipid stripes development. Endothelium damage caused by the formation of lipid stripes in early childhood may lead to bacteria penetrating into blood circulation after oral cavity procedures for children as well as for patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis.