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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 647507, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/647507
Research Article

Clinical Course, Prognosis, and Cause of Death in Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

Division of Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Móricz Zsigmond Street 22, Debrecen 4032, Hungary

Received 25 February 2014; Revised 24 April 2014; Accepted 25 April 2014; Published 20 May 2014

Academic Editor: Clelia M. Riera

Copyright © 2014 Ildiko Fanny Horvath et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The aim of this retrospective, single-centre study was to investigate the clinical and laboratory features and disease outcomes of 547 patients diagnosed with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) between 1975 and 2010. The patients were followed up for years. We evaluated the clinical and laboratory features, and assessed their influence on the time of diagnosis, survival, and mortality ratios, and compared them within subgroups defined by gender, glandular and extraglandular manifestations (EGMs), associated diseases, and immunoserological abnormalities. The most frequent EGMs were polyarthritis, Raynaud’s phenomenon, and vasculitis among our patients; the most common associated disease was thyroiditis. During the follow-up period, 51 patients died; the median survival time was 33.71 years. Our results revealed a negative effect of cryoglobulinemia on survival ratios; additionally, the presence of vasculitis and lymphoproliferative diseases at the time of diagnosis increased the risk of mortality. The development of vasculitis was the most powerful predictor of mortality. Mortality in the group of patients with extraglandular symptoms was two- to threefold higher than in the glandular group. Attention is drawn to the importance of close monitoring and targeted diagnostic approaches in those pSS subgroups with obviously increased mortality risk.