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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 730380, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/730380
Review Article

The Treg/Th17 Paradigm in Lung Cancer

1Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Eighth People’s Hospital of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi 530001, China
2Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, China
3Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First People’s Hospital of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi 530022, China

Received 10 December 2013; Revised 21 March 2014; Accepted 4 April 2014; Published 29 April 2014

Academic Editor: Yi Zhang

Copyright © 2014 Min-Chao Duan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of lung cancer are very complex and not yet entirely clarified. T lymphocytes and their immune-regulatory cytokines play a pivotal role in controlling tumor growth and metastasis. Following activation by unique cytokines, CD4+ T helper cells differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Traditionally, research in lung cancer immunity has focused almost exclusively on Th1/Th2 cell balance. Recently, Th17 cells and Tregs represent an intriguing issue to be addressed in lung cancer pathogenesis. Tregs play an important role in the preservation of self-tolerance and modulation of overall immune responses against tumor cells. Th17 cells directly or via other proinflammatory cytokines modulate antitumor immune responses. Notably, there is a close relation between Tregs and Th17 cells. However, the possible interaction between these subsets in lung cancer remains to be elucidated. In this setting, targeting Treg/Th17 balance for therapeutic purposes may represent a useful tool for lung cancer treatment in the future. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings of the role of these novel populations in lung cancer immunity and to highlight the pleiotropic effects of these subsets on the development and regulation of lung cancer.