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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 850810, 10 pages
Research Article

Conventional Rapid Latex Agglutination in Estimation of von Willebrand Factor: Method Revisited and Potential Clinical Applications

1Departments of Haematology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
2Department of Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia

Received 4 September 2014; Revised 30 November 2014; Accepted 30 November 2014; Published 25 December 2014

Academic Editor: Peirong Jiao

Copyright © 2014 Marianor Mahat et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Measurement of von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF : Ag) levels is usually performed in a specialised laboratory which limits its application in routine clinical practice. So far, no commercial rapid test kit is available for VWF : Ag estimation. This paper discusses the technical aspect of latex agglutination method which was established to suit the purpose of estimating von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels in the plasma sample. The latex agglutination test can be performed qualitatively and semiquantitatively. Reproducibility, stability, linearity, limit of detection, interference, and method comparison studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of this test. Semiquantitative latex agglutination test was strongly correlated with the reference immunoturbidimetric assay (Spearman’s rho = 0.946, , ). A substantial agreement () was found between qualitative latex agglutination test and the reference assay. Using the scoring system for the rapid latex test, no agglutination is with 0% VWF : Ag (control negative), 1+ reaction is equivalent to <20% VWF : Ag, and 4+ reaction indicates >150% VWF : Ag (when comparing with immunoturbidimetric assay). The findings from evaluation studies suggest that latex agglutination method is suitable to be used as a rapid test kit for the estimation of VWF : Ag levels in various clinical conditions associated with high levels and low levels of VWF : Ag.