Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 147616, 11 pages
Research Article

Endothelin Receptors Expressed by Immune Cells Are Involved in Modulation of Inflammation and in Fibrosis: Relevance to the Pathogenesis of Systemic Sclerosis

1Department of Medicine, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy
2G. Gaslini Institute, 16148 Genoa, Italy
3University of Genoa, 16126 Genoa, Italy
4Pederzoli Hospital, Peschiera del Garda, 37019 Verona, Italy

Received 19 September 2014; Revised 9 February 2015; Accepted 2 March 2015

Academic Editor: David E. Gilham

Copyright © 2015 Tinazzi Elisa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays a pivotal role in vasoconstriction, fibrosis, and inflammation, the key features of systemic sclerosis (SSc). ET-1 receptors ( and ) are expressed on endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts, but their presence on immune cells has not been deeply investigated so far. Endothelin receptors antagonists such as bosentan have beneficial effects on vasoconstriction and fibrosis, but less is known about their potential anti-inflammatory effects. We studied the expression of ET-1 receptors on immune cells (T and B lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) and the link between ET-1 and inflammation in patients with SSc. We show here that ET-1 exerts a proinflammatory effect in CD4+ T cells, since it induces an increased IFN-γ production; preincubation with antagonists of both receptors reduces IFN-γ production. Moreover, following ET-1 stimulation, neutrophils produce proinflammatory mediators, thus amplifying the effects of activated CD4+ T cells. Our data indicate that ET-1 system is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation and fibrosis typical of SSc, through the activation of T lymphocytes and neutrophils and the consequent release of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines. These findings suggest that dual ET-1 receptors antagonist therapy, besides its effect on vasculopathy, has a profound impact on the immune system favouring antiinflammatory and antifibrogenic effects.