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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 167089, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/167089
Review Article

Correlates of Protection for M Protein-Based Vaccines against Group A Streptococcus

1Group A Streptococcus Research Group, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC 3052, Australia
2Centre for International Child Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3052, Australia
3Pneumococcal Research Group, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC 3052, Australia
4Department of Paediatrics, Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, VIC 3052, Australia

Received 9 February 2015; Revised 28 April 2015; Accepted 3 May 2015

Academic Editor: Peirong Jiao

Copyright © 2015 Shu Ki Tsoi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Group A streptococcus (GAS) is known to cause a broad spectrum of illness, from pharyngitis and impetigo, to autoimmune sequelae such as rheumatic heart disease, and invasive diseases. It is a significant cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, but no efficacious vaccine is currently available. Progress in GAS vaccine development has been hindered by a number of obstacles, including a lack of standardization in immunoassays and the need to define human correlates of protection. In this review, we have examined the current immunoassays used in both GAS and other organisms, and explored the various challenges in their implementation in order to propose potential future directions to identify a correlate of protection and facilitate the development of M protein-based vaccines, which are currently the main GAS vaccine candidates.