Table 3: Probes for mediators of inflammation in modern imaging techniques.

Cell type or proteinProbe

Macrophage(i) 18F-FDG (PET) [98, 99]

CD4+ T cell(i) 64Cu-PTSM (PET) [100] 
(ii) 18F-FB-IL-2 (PET) [99]

B cell(i) 124I-rituximab (PET) [101]

Neutrophil(i) cFLFLF-PEG-Cy 7 (NIRF) 
(ii) cFLFLF-PEG-DOTA-64Cu (PET)

Mast cell(i) Ligand 1 (in vitro) [102]

TNFα(i) 64Cu-DOTA-etanercept (PET) [103]

Complement(i) USPIO-conjugated anti-C3mab (T2-MRI) [104]

MMP(i) 124I-HO-MPI (CGS 27023A) (PET) [105]