Journal of Immunology Research / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Modulation of Immune Response by Organophosphorus Pesticides: Fishes as a Potential Model in Immunotoxicology

Table 1

Toxic effects of OPs in humoral and cellular immune parameters in fishes.

ParametersOPEffectsTissue/cell lineExposure timeConcentrationSpeciesReferences

Humoral immune response

Lysozyme activity Diazinon

Spleen1, 7 d
21, 28 d
35, 42, 49, 56, 63 d
1.5 mg/LGreat sturgeon or beluga (Huso huso) [31]
Plasma35, 42, 56, 63 d
Kidney63 d


Spleen
Plasma
Kidney
7 d
1 d
7 d
2.0, 4.0 mg/LGrass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) [25]
Plasma15, 30 d0.1, 0.2 mg/LRainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) [28]
Chlorpyrifos
Spleen3 d
7 d
15 µg/L
75 µg/L
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) [10]

Plasma3 d
3, 5, 7 d
15 µg/L
75 µg/L

Kidney3 d
5 d
15 µg/L
75 µg/L
Plasma4 d0.102, 0.255 mg/mLNile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) [29]
PhosalonePlasma7, 14 d0.15, 0.30, 0.60 mg/LCommon carp (Cyprinus carpio)[30]

C-reactive proteinMetrifonate
Plasma3 d
10, 18 d
0.4 ppmRainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)[32]

GlobulinDiazinonPlasma7, 14, 28 d0.1, 0.2 mg/LRainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) [27]
7, 15, 30 d[28]
PhosalonePlasma14 d0.15, 0.30, 0.60 mg/LCommon carp (Cyprinus carpio)[30]

IgM DiazinonPlasma4 d3.915, 7.830 ppmNile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) [35]
Plasma4 d1.96 mg/LNile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) [26]
Chlorpyrifos
Spleen1, 3, 5, 7 d
3, 5 d
15 µg/L
75 µg/L
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) [10]
Kidney1, 3, 5 d15, 75 µg/L
Plasma1 d75 µg/L
Plasma4 d0.051 mg/mLNile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) [29]

Contents of complement C3 ChlorpyrifosSpleen1, 3,5, 7 d15, 75 µg/L  Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) [10]
Plasma1 d75 µg/L

Kidney1 d
7 d
15 µg/L
75 µg/L

Complement C3 expression at mRNA level ChlorpyrifosSpleen1 d75 µg/L Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) [10]
7 d 15, 75 µg/L

Kidney3 d
5 d
15 µg/L
7 d 15, 75 µg/L

IL-1β relative mRNA levelSpleen1.16, 11.6, 116 µg/L Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) [36]
Kidney
IL-1R relative mRNA levelSpleen11.6, 116 µg/L
Chlorpyrifos
Kidney40 d1.16 µg/L
11.6 µg/L
IFN-γ relative mRNA levelSpleen11.6 µg/L

Kidney1.16, 11.6 µg/L
116 µg/L

Cellular immune response

Cell proliferationDiazinonLymphocytes4 d7.83, 3.91, 1.95 mg/LNile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)[35]
ChlorpyrifosLymphocytes4 d0.051, 0.102, 0.255 mg/LNile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)[29]

WBC
Lym
Mon
Neu
Eos
Bas
Diazinon




Blood10, 20, 30 d
 60, 120 µg/L


120 µg/L
Common carp, (Cyprinus carpio)[37]

WBCMalathionBlood1, 4, 28, 42 d0.023, 0.46 mg/LNile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)[1]
ChlorpyrifosBlood14 d0.040, 0.080 mg/LCommon carp (Cyprinus carpio)[38]

WBC
Lym
Mon
Neu
Diazinon


Blood7, 15, 30 d0.1, 0.2 mg/mLRainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)[28]

WBC
Lym
Mon
Neu
Phosalone


Blood7, 14 d
7, 14 d
14 d
7, 14 d
0.15, 0.30, 0.60 mg/L
0.15, 0.30, 0.60 mg/L
0.30, 0.60 mg/L
0.15, 0.30, 0.60 mg/L
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio)[30]

WBC
Lym
Mon
Eos
Neu
Diazinon



Blood7 d0.5, 1 ppmIridescent shark (Pangasius hypophthalmus)[39]

Respiratory burstDiazinonSplenocytes4 d1.96 mg/LNile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)[26]

Phagocytic indexDiazinonBlood4 d7.83, 3.91 mg/LNile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)[26]

Phagocytic function
 GranChlorpyrifosKidney cells0.1, 1, 10 mg/LRainbow fish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) [63]
 LynSilver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus)
 GranGolden perch (Macquaria ambigua)
 Lyn10 mg/LMurray cod (Maccullochella peelii)

↑: increase/activation (induction); ↓: inhibition/decrease; →: no effect; —: not detectable; WBC: white blood cell; Lym: lymphocytes; Mon: monocyte; Gra: granulocytes; Eos: eosinophil; Bas: basophil; Neu: neutrophil; d: days.

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