Research Article

Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Display Impaired Function in Inhibiting Th17 Cells

Figure 2

Immunomodulatory function of RA MSCs on Tfh and Treg cells. (a) The effect of MSCs on PBMC proliferation. CFSE-labelled PBMCs (5 × 105 cells/well) were cultured 4 days under the stimulation of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies with or without the presence of MSCs (5 × 104 cells/well). For each sample ( in each group), a proliferation index is calculated. (b) Percentages of CXCR5+PD-1+ cells in CD4+ T cells (Tfh cells) were significantly downregulated by control MSCs or RA MSCs ( in each group). (c) Polarization of Treg cells from CD4+ T cells was significantly upregulated by control MSCs or RA MSCs ( in each group). ; n.s., no significant difference. PBMCs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; CFSE, carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester.