Journal of Immunology Research / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

HIV and the Gut Microbiota, Partners in Crime: Breaking the Vicious Cycle to Unearth New Therapeutic Targets

Table 1

Selected studies targeting the gut microbiota or subsequent downstream effects.

Therapeutic targetDrugStudy detailsResultReference

IDO1-MT CXCL1−/− miceDecreased activation in the brain and decreased depressive behaviour[71]
1-MT Mice with injections to the brain of HIV-infected macrophagesIncreased CD8+/IFN-γ+ T cells in the periphery and an 89% decrease in HIV-infected macrophages in the brain [72]
1-MT SIV in rhesus macaques on ARTNo change to T cell counts or activation, viral load, or Trp metabolism[74]
1-MT SIV in rhesus macaques on ARTOnly partial effect on IDO activity and significant drop in viral load for macaques with unsuccessful ART[73]

Pro-/prebioticsPro and prebioticsSIV in pigtail macaques on ARTEnhanced reconstitution and functionality of CD4+ T cells and increased frequency of GI tract APCs[78]
Bifidobacterium lactis Meta-analysis of formula supplementation in HIV-infected infants (>6 months)Improved infant growth and protection against CD4+ T cell loss[79]

SevelamerSevelamerAcute SIV infection in pigtail macaques Drug bound LPS in the gut, drastically decreased inflammation and immune activation, and slightly decreased viral replication[81]
SevelamerHIV patients not receiving ARTNo significant change to microbial translocation, inflammation, or immune activation, but significant decrease in LDL cholesterol[82]

IL-7Recombinant human IL-7HIV patients on successful ARTIncreased CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, increased a4b7 T cells, and decreased sCD14[84]

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