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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 627125, 11 pages
Research Article

Gingiva Equivalents Secrete Negligible Amounts of Key Chemokines Involved in Langerhans Cell Migration Compared to Skin Equivalents

1Department of Dermatology, VU University Medical Center, De Boellelaan 1118, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands
2Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Center for Dentistry (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University, Amsterdam, Netherlands
3Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, De Boellelaan 1118, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands

Received 24 April 2015; Accepted 5 July 2015

Academic Editor: Menaka C. Thounaojam

Copyright © 2015 Ilona J. Kosten et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Both oral mucosa and skin have the capacity to maintain immune homeostasis or regulate immune responses upon environmental assault. Whereas much is known about key innate immune events in skin, little is known about oral mucosa. Comparative studies are limited due to the scarce supply of oral mucosa for ex vivo studies. Therefore, we used organotypic tissue equivalents (reconstructed epithelium on fibroblast-populated collagen hydrogel) to study cross talk between cells. Oral mucosa and skin equivalents were compared regarding secretion of cytokines and chemokines involved in LC migration and general inflammation. Basal secretion, representative of homeostasis, and also secretion after stimulation with TNF, an allergen (cinnamaldehyde), or an irritant (SDS) were assessed. We found that proinflammatory IL-18 and chemokines CCL2, CCL20, and CXCL12, all involved in LC migration, were predominantly secreted by skin as compared to gingiva. Furthermore, CCL27 was predominantly secreted by skin whereas CCL28 was predominantly secreted by gingiva. In contrast, general inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and CXCL8 were secreted similarly by skin and gingiva. These results indicate that the cytokines and chemokines triggering innate immunity and LC migration are different in skin and gingiva. This differential regulation should be figured into novel therapy or vaccination strategies in the context of skin versus mucosa.