Journal of Immunology Research / 2015 / Article / Fig 2

Review Article

The Bidirectional Relationship between Sleep and Immunity against Infections

Figure 2

Effect of bacterial infections on the sleep process. The sleep disorders that are caused by bacteria include daytime sleepiness and narcolepsy, chronic fatigue, and insomnia, which are accompanied by higher arousal index and sleep fragmentation. Bacterial infections also cause other alterations, such as increases in the duration of slow sleep wave (SWS) and periods of wakefulness. Also, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and sleep efficiency decrease in bacterial infections. Wall components of bacteria (primarily LPS) are strong inducers of proinflammatory cytokines, which is one possible mechanism by which the infection causes sleep disorders.

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