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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 873404, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/873404
Review Article

Viral Interference and Persistence in Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses

1Programa Institucional de Biomedicina Molecular, Escuela Nacional de Medicina y Homeopatía, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07320 Mexico, DF, Mexico
2Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias en Biotecnología, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07320 Mexico, DF, Mexico

Received 11 June 2015; Revised 18 August 2015; Accepted 19 August 2015

Academic Editor: Prasad Paradkar

Copyright © 2015 Juan Santiago Salas-Benito and Mónica De Nova-Ocampo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are important pathogens for humans, and the detection of two or more flaviviruses cocirculating in the same geographic area has often been reported. However, the epidemiological impact remains to be determined. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are primarily transmitted through Aedes and Culex mosquitoes; these viruses establish a life-long or persistent infection without apparent pathological effects. This establishment requires a balance between virus replication and the antiviral host response. Viral interference is a phenomenon whereby one virus inhibits the replication of other viruses, and this condition is frequently associated with persistent infections. Viral interference and persistent infection are determined by several factors, such as defective interfering particles, competition for cellular factors required for translation/replication, and the host antiviral response. The interaction between two flaviviruses typically results in viral interference, indicating that these viruses share common features during the replicative cycle in the vector. The potential mechanisms involved in these processes are reviewed here.