Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 1583951, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1583951
Research Article

Plasma IL-6/IL-10 Ratio and IL-8, LDH, and HBDH Level Predict the Severity and the Risk of Death in AIDS Patients with Pneumocystis Pneumonia

Jia Sun,1,2,3 Junwei Su,1,2,3 Yirui Xie,1,2,3 Michael T. Yin,4 Ying Huang,1,2,3 Lijun Xu,1,2,3 Qihui Zhou,1,2,3 and Biao Zhu1,2,3

1State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang, Hangzhou 310006, China
2The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, Hangzhou 310006, China
3Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang, Hangzhou 310006, China
4Division of Infectious Diseases, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA

Received 8 November 2015; Revised 20 April 2016; Accepted 9 June 2016

Academic Editor: Paola Nistico

Copyright © 2016 Jia Sun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Xiao, G. Gao, Y. Li et al., “Spectrums of opportunistic infections and malignancies in HIV-infected patients in tertiary care hospital, China,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 10, Article ID e75915, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. F. Thomas Jr. and A. H. Limper, “Pneumocystis pneumonia,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, no. 24, pp. 2487–2498, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. E. Kaplan, C. Benson, K. K. Holmes, J. T. Brooks, A. Pau, and H. Masur, “Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America,” MMWR Recommendations and Reports, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1–207, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  4. M. K. Zaman and D. A. White, “Serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Diagnostic and prognostic significance,” The American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 137, no. 4, pp. 796–800, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. K. Sage, M. Noursadeghi, H. E. Evans et al., “Prognostic value of C-reactive protein in HIV-infected patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia,” International Journal of STD & AIDS, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 288–292, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Gabay and I. Kushner, “Acute-phase proteins and other systemic responses to inflammation,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 340, no. 6, pp. 448–454, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Zhang, J. Zhu, A. Imrich, M. Cushion, T. B. Kinane, and H. Koziel, “Pneumocystis activates human alveolar macrophage NF-κB signaling through mannose receptors,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 3147–3160, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. Vassallo, T. J. Kottom, J. E. Standing, and A. H. Limper, “Vitronectin and fibronectin function as glucan binding proteins augmenting macrophage responses to Pneumocystis carinii,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 203–211, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. T. Pottratz, S. Reese, and J. L. Sheldon, “Pneumocystis carinii induces interleukin 6 production by an alveolar epithelial cell line,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 424–429, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. L. Benfield, B. Lundgren, J. H. Shelhamer, and J. D. Lundgren, “Pneumocystis carinii major surface glycoprotein induces interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 release from a human alveolar epithelial cell line,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 717–722, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. Kobayashi, S. Worgall, T. P. O'Connor, and R. G. Crystal, “Interaction of Pneumocystis carinii with dendritic cells and resulting host responses to P. carinii,” Journal of Immunotherapy, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 54–63, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. M. Carmona, R. Vassallo, Z. Vuk-Pavlovic, J. E. Standing, T. J. Kottom, and A. H. Limper, “Pneumocystis cell wall β-glucans induce dendritic cell costimulatory molecule expression and inflammatory activation through a Fas-Fas ligand mechanism,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 177, no. 1, pp. 459–467, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. Ishimine, K. Kawakami, A. Nakamoto, and A. Saito, “Analysis of cellular response and gamma interferon synthesis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung homogenate of mice infected with Pneumocystis carinii,” Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 49–58, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. N. Benito, A. Moreno, X. Filella et al., “Inflammatory responses in blood samples of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with pulmonary infections,” Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 608–614, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. L. Benfield, J. Vestbo, J. Junge, T. L. Nielsen, A.-M. B. Jensen, and J. D. Lundgren, “Prognostic value of interleukin-8 in AIDS-associated Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 151, no. 4, pp. 1058–1062, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C.-W. Chou, F.-C. Lin, H.-C. Tsai, and S.-C. Chang, “The impact of concomitant pulmonary infection on immune dysregulation in Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia,” BMC Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 14, article 182, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Masur, J. T. Brooks, C. A. Benson, K. K. Holmes, A. K. Pau, and J. E. Kaplan, “Prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: updated guidelines from the centers for disease control and prevention, national institutes of health, and HIV medicine association of the infectious diseases society of America,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 1308–1311, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Tasaka, N. Hasegawa, S. Kobayashi et al., “Serum indicators for the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia,” Chest, vol. 131, no. 4, pp. 1173–1180, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. Esteves, S. S. Calé, R. Badura et al., “Diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia: evaluation of four serologic biomarkers,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 379.e1–379.e10, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Tasaka and H. Tokuda, “Recent advances in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-infected adults,” Expert Opinion on Medical Diagnostics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 85–97, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. F. Esteves, C.-H. Lee, B. De Sousa et al., “(1–3)-Beta-D-glucan in association with lactate dehydrogenase as biomarkers of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) in HIV-infected patients,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1173–1180, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Quist and A. R. Hill, “Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, tuberculosis, and bacterial pneumonia,” Chest, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 415–418, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. R. Boulware, K. H. Hullsiek, C. E. Puronen et al., “Higher levels of CRP, D-dimer, IL-6, and hyaluronic acid before initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) are associated with increased risk of AIDS or death,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 203, no. 11, pp. 1637–1646, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B. O. Porter, G. L. Ouedraogo, J. N. Hodge et al., “d-Dimer and CRP levels are elevated prior to antiretroviral treatment in patients who develop IRIS,” Clinical Immunology, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 42–50, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. H. Kuller, R. Tracy, W. Belloso et al., “Inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers and mortality in patients with HIV infection,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 5, no. 10, article e203, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Montón, A. Torres, M. El-Ebiary, X. Filella, A. Xaubet, and J. P. De La Bellacasa, “Cytokine expression in severe pneumonia: a bronchoalveolar lavage study,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1745–1753, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C.-W. Chou, F.-C. Lin, H.-C. Tsai, and S.-C. Chang, “The importance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia,” Medical Mycology, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 704–712, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. O. Dienz and M. Rincon, “The effects of IL-6 on CD4 T cell responses,” Clinical Immunology, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 27–33, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. Chen, E. A. Havell, F. Gigliotti, and A. G. Harmsen, “Interleukin-6 production in a murine model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: relation to resistance and inflammatory response,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 97–102, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. X. Iriart, B. Witkowski, C. Courtais et al., “Cellular and cytokine changes in the alveolar environment among immunocompromised patients during Pneumocystis jirovecii infection,” Medical Mycology, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1075–1087, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. W. Moore, R. de Waal Malefyt, R. L. Coffman, and A. O'Garra, “Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 19, pp. 683–765, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Ruan, C. Tate, J. J. Lee, T. Ritter, J. K. Kolls, and J. E. Shellito, “Local delivery of the viral interleukin-10 gene suppresses tissue inflammation in murine Pneumocystis carinii infection,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 70, no. 11, pp. 6107–6113, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Denis and E. Ghadirian, “Dysregulation of interleukin 8, interleukin 10, and interleukin 12 release by alveolar macrophages from HIV type 1-infected subjects,” AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1619–1627, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus