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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 1719720, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1719720
Review Article

The Role of TLR4 on B Cell Activation and Anti-GPI Antibody Production in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

1Department of Pediatrics, The Affiliated People’s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212002, China
2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003, China
3Department of Clinical Laboratory and Hematology, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, China

Received 13 July 2016; Accepted 16 August 2016

Academic Editor: Kurt Blaser

Copyright © 2016 Si Cheng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

High titer of anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (anti-β2GPI Ab) plays a pathogenic role in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Numerous studies have focused on the pathological mechanism in APS; however, little attention is paid to the immune mechanism of production of anti-β2GPI antibodies in APS. Our previous study demonstrated that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a vital role in the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from the mice immunized with human β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI). TLR4 is required for the activation of B cells and the production of autoantibody in mice treated with β2GPI. However, TLR4 provides a third signal for B cell activation and then promotes B cells better receiving signals from both B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and CD40, thus promoting B cell activation, surface molecules expression, anti-β2GPI Ab production, and cytokines secretion and making B cell functioning like an antigen presenting cell (APC). At the same time, TLR4 also promotes B cells producing antibodies by upregulating the expression of B-cell activating factor (BAFF). In this paper, we aim to review the functions of TLR4 in B cell immune response and antibody production in autoimmune disease APS and try to find a new way for the prevention and treatment of APS.