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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 3160486, 31 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3160486
Review Article

Immunomodulatory Effects Mediated by Dopamine

1Psychiatric Genetics Department, National Institute of Psychiatry “Ramón de la Fuente”, Clinical Research Branch, Calzada México-Xochimilco 101, Colonia San Lorenzo Huipulco, Tlalpan, 14370 Mexico City, Mexico
2Department of Psychoimmunology, National Institute of Psychiatry “Ramón de la Fuente”, Calzada México-Xochimilco 101, Colonia San Lorenzo Huipulco, Tlalpan, 14370 Mexico City, Mexico
3National Institute of Psychiatry “Ramón de la Fuente”, Clinical Research Branch, Calzada México-Xochimilco 101, Colonia San Lorenzo Huipulco, Tlalpan, 14370 Mexico City, Mexico
4Laboratory of Neuroimmunoendocrinology, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “Manuel Velasco Suárez”, Avenida Insurgentes Sur 3877, La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269 Mexico City, Mexico
5Unidad de Investigación y Desarrollo, Probiomed S.A. de C.V. Cruce de Carreteras Acatzingo-Zumpahuacán S/N, 52400 Tenancingo, MEX, Mexico
6Area of Neurosciences, Department of Biology of Reproduction, CBS, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Avenida San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Colonia Vicentina, Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico City, Mexico
7Unidad de Genética de la Nutrición, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Av. del Iman No. 1, Cuarto Piso, 04530 Mexico City, Mexico

Received 15 March 2016; Revised 29 July 2016; Accepted 8 August 2016

Academic Editor: Peirong Jiao

Copyright © 2016 Rodrigo Arreola et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), has modulatory functions at the systemic level. The peripheral and central nervous systems have independent dopaminergic system (DAS) that share mechanisms and molecular machinery. In the past century, experimental evidence has accumulated on the proteins knowledge that is involved in the synthesis, reuptake, and transportation of DA in leukocytes and the differential expression of the D1-like (D1R and D5R) and D2-like receptors (D2R, D3R, and D4R). The expression of these components depends on the state of cellular activation and the concentration and time of exposure to DA. Receptors that are expressed in leukocytes are linked to signaling pathways that are mediated by changes in cAMP concentration, which in turn triggers changes in phenotype and cellular function. According to the leukocyte lineage, the effects of DA are associated with such processes as respiratory burst, cytokine and antibody secretion, chemotaxis, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. In clinical conditions such as schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, Tourette syndrome, and multiple sclerosis (MS), there are evident alterations during immune responses in leukocytes, in which changes in DA receptor density have been observed. Several groups have proposed that these findings are useful in establishing clinical status and clinical markers.