Journal of Immunology Research / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Induced by Chronic Sleep Loss: Low-Grade Inflammation May Be the Link

Table 1

Sleep loss procedures.

Human proceduresDurationAnimal modelsDuration

Sleep deprivation (SD)(i) Shift working [117]
(ii) Voluntary SD [117]
(i) Several days
(ii) 12–90 h
(i) Modified multiple platform method (REM SD) [118]
(ii) Gentle SD (total SD) [119]
(iii) Disk-over-water method (total and selective SD) [120]
(i) 3–96 h
(ii) 3–96 h
(iii) 3–96 h

Sleep restriction (SR)(i) Voluntarily SR [117](i) 3–5 h(i) Modified multiple platform method [7]
(ii) Rotating bar at the bottom of the house-cage [8]
(i) 20 h of SD plus 4 h of daily sleep recovery
(ii) 18 h of SD plus 6 h of daily sleep recovery

Sleep fragmentation (SF)(i) Obstructive apnoea patients [117]
(ii) The elderly [117]
(i) Several days
(ii) Several days
(i) Gentle manipulation coupled to EEG recording [119]
(ii) Disk-over-water method [120]
(i) 1 to several days
(ii) 1 to several days

Sleep deprivation consists of sleep loss without sleep opportunity along a short period; sleep restriction consists of a reduction in total sleep time with short periods of sleep opportunity; and sleep fragmentation consists of multiple awakenings during sleep time.